A history of solar activity over millennia

  title={A history of solar activity over millennia},
  author={Ilya G. Usoskin},
  journal={Living Reviews in Solar Physics},
  • I. Usoskin
  • Published 2017
  • Environmental Science, Physics
  • Living Reviews in Solar Physics
Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number. Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity can only be obtained using a method based upon indirect… 
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