A history of neuraxial administration of local analgesics and opioids

@article{Brill2003AHO,
  title={A history of neuraxial administration of local analgesics and opioids},
  author={Selling Brill and G. M. Gurman and Anthony Fisher},
  journal={European Journal of Anaesthesiology},
  year={2003},
  volume={20},
  pages={682-689}
}
The history of intrathecal and epidural anaesthesia is in parallel with the development of general anaesthesia. As ether anaesthesia (1846) is considered the first modern anaesthetic since its use by Morton 157 yr ago, so Bier made history by using cocaine for intrathecal anaesthesia in 1898. The first published report on opioids for intrathecal anaesthesia belongs to a Romanian surgeon, Racoviceanu-Pitesti, who presented his experience at Paris in 1901. It was almost a century before the… 
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