A history of crystal filters

  title={A history of crystal filters},
  author={Robert Kinsman},
  journal={Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Cat. No.98CH36165)},
  • R. Kinsman
  • Published 27 May 1998
  • Engineering
  • Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Cat. No.98CH36165)
The first use of quartz crystals as filter elements was suggested by Waiter Cady in 1922 in his paper "The Piezo-Electric Resonator", although in the initial conception a single crystal only was used as a very narrow bandwidth coupling element. The use of multiple crystals in ladder and lattice configurations was proposed in the late 1920's and in 1934 Walter P. Mason published the results of his work on crystal filters which were developed for use in frequency-division-multiplex telephone… 

Figures from this paper

High-frequency monolithic thin-film piezoelectric-on-substrate filters

  • R. AbdolvandF. Ayazi
  • Physics, Engineering
    International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies
  • 2009
A class of micromachined acoustic filters is presented in which the number of individual resonant structures is reduced to 1 (monolithic filter). This resonant structure is comprised of a stack of


The concept of filtering analog signals was first introduced almost one hundred years ago, and has seen tremendous development since then. The majority of filters consist of electrical circuits,


This paper reports on the design and implementation of acoustically-coupled thin-film ZnO-on-diamond resonators fabricated on a single resonant structure (monolithic filter). These small devices

A Novel 76.8375 MHz Crystal Filter Based on Third Overtone Crystal Units

Quartz crystal units (CUs) are the most popular oscillating components in high-quality crystal filters and oscillators, due to their electrical and mechanical characteristics. This paper considers

Computer analysis of a crystal filter with four crystal units

A computer simulation of crystal filter composed by four crystal units is presented, showing that by changing the filter parameters it is possible to tune the pass-band and stop-band filter attenuation.

Acoustic Wave Filter Technology–A Review

  • C. Ruppel
  • Physics
    IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
  • 2017
This paper will try to focus on innovations leading to high volume applications of intermediate frequency (IF) and radio frequency (RF) acoustic filters, e.g., TV IF filters, IF filters for cellular phones, and SAW/BAW RF filters for the RF front-end of cellular phones.

Matched crystal filters

Crystal oscillators and filters are still very important devices in modern telecommunication and measurement equipment. Quartz crystal units are basic elements for those oscillators and filters, due

A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

Author(s): Akgul, Mehmet | Advisor(s): Nguyen, Clark T.-C. | Abstract: AbstractA Micromechanical RF ChannelizerbyMehmet AkgulDoctor of Philosophy in Engineering - Electrical Engineering and Computer

Thin film bulk acoustic wave devices : performance optimization and modeling

Thin film bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators and filters operating in the GHz range are used in mobile phones for the most demanding filtering applications and complement the surface acoustic wave

Virtual Quartz Crystal Microbalance: Bioinspired Resonant Frequency Tracking

  • I. Burda
  • Materials Science
  • 2022
The reference acoustic properties of the quartz crystal used as a resonator are ensured by its high-quality factor (Q-factor). The microbalance of the quartz crystal (QCM) exploits the bulk acoustic



High-Frequency Crystal Filter Design Techniques and Applications

High-frequency crystal filters which operate to 40 mc are now being commercially produced. These filters, with bandwidths ranging from one cycle to several hundred kilocycles per second, have been

The evolution of the discrete crystal single-sideband selection filter in the bell system

The Bell System in its long-distance frequency division multiplex systems has traditionally used crystal single sideband selection filters in the basic 12-channel modulation process. This paper

Electrical wave filters employing quartz crystals as elements

This paper discusses the use of piezoelectric crystals as elements in wave filters and shows that very sharp selectivities can be obtained by employing such elements. It is shown that by employing

On the Synthesis of the Crystal-Capacitor Lattice-Filter with Symmetrical Insertion Loss Characteristics

A general synthesis procedure is described for the very narrow-bandwidth lattice crystal filter. Specifically, it has been shown that equivalent low-pass insertion functions for all (almost)

The Piezo-Electric Resonator

  • W. Cady
  • Engineering
    Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers
  • 1922
The general theory of piezo-electricity is summarized, and the equations applicable to quartz are stated. The "concentrated mass theory" of longitudinal vibrations in rods is then developed, and the

Energy Trapping and Related Studies of Multiple Electrode Filter Crystals

Summary Energy trapping is proposed as an explanation for the behavior of high frequency quartz filter crystals. Published elastic wave theory for lossless wafers includes a cut-off phenomenon: If

The golden anniversary of electric wave filters

In filter technology, the synthesis techniques of Cauer and Darlington, among others, have come into wide-spread use. With the swing to higher and higher frequencies, these techniques have enabled

A simple single model for quartz crystal resonator low level drive sensitivity and monolithic filter intermodulation

  • L. DworskyR. Kinsman
  • Physics
    IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
  • 1994
The nature of the observed phenomenon of "starting resistance" is reviewed, along with the accompanying experimental evidence of high drive-level altering and sometime "curing" of the malady. A

Monolithic Crystal Filters

An improved monolithic piezoelectric filter unit having two bilateral electrodes on one surface and a common electrode on the opposite surface, the common electrode connected to the common terminal