A highly virulent variant of HIV-1 circulating in the Netherlands

  title={A highly virulent variant of HIV-1 circulating in the Netherlands},
  author={Chris Wymant and Daniela Bezemer and François Blanquart and Luca Ferretti and Astrid Gall and Matthew D Hall and Tanya Golubchik and Margreet Bakker and Swee Hoe Ong and Lele Zhao and David Bonsall and Mariateresa de Cesare and George Macintyre-Cockett and Lucie Abeler-D{\"o}rner and Jan Albert and Norbert Bannert and Jacques Fellay and M. Kate Grabowski and Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer and Huldrych F. G{\"u}nthard and Pia Kivel{\"a} and Roger D. Kouyos and Oliver Laeyendecker and Laurence Meyer and Kholoud Porter and Matti Ristola and Ard van Sighem and Ben Berkhout and Paul Kellam and Marion Cornelissen and Peter Reiss and Christophe Fraser and Vincent Aubert and Manuel Battegay and Enos Bernasconi and J{\"u}rg B{\"o}ni and Dominique L. Braun and H. C. Bucher and Claudine Burton-Jeangros and Alexandra Calmy and Matthias Cavassini and G. Dollenmaier and M. Egger and Luigia Elzi and J. S. Fehr and J. Fellay and H J Furrer and Caroline Fux and Meri Gorgievski and H. F. G{\"u}nthard and David Haerry and Barbara Hasse and H. H. Hirsch and Matthias Hoffmann and Irene Mathilde H{\"o}sli and Christian R. Kahlert and L Kaiser and Olivia Keiser and Thomas Klimkait and R. D. Kouyos and H Kovari and Bruno Ledergerber and Gladys Martinetti and Bego{\~n}a Martinez de Tejada and Catia Marzolini and K. J. Metzner and Nancy M{\"u}ller and David Nadal and Dunja Nicca and Guiseppe Pantaleo and Andri Rauch and Stephan Regenass and Christoph Rudin and Franziska Sch{\"o}ni-Affolter and Patrick Schmid and R. Speck and Marcel St{\"o}ckle and Philip E. Tarr and Alexandra Trkola and Pietro Vernazza and R. Weber and Sabine Yerly and Marc van der Valk and S E Geerlings and Abraham Goorhuis and J. W. Hovius and B Lempkes and F. J. B. Nellen and Tom van der Poll and Jan M. Prins and Peter Reiss and Martine J. van Vugt and Willem Joost Wiersinga and F. W. Wit and Marlies A. van Duinen and J van Eden and A Hazenberg and A M H van Hes and Frank J Pijnappel and S Y Smalhout and A M Weijsenfeld and Suzanne Jurriaans and Nicole K. T. Back and Hans L. Zaaijer and Ben Berkhout and Marion Cornelissen and C. J. Schinkel and Katja C Wolthers and Edgar JG Peters and Michael A van Agtmael and Reshma Saskia Autar and M. K. Bomers and Kim C. E. Sigaloff and M Heitmuller and L M Laan and C. Wim Ang and Robin van Houdt and Marcel Jonges and T W Kuijpers and Dasja Pajkrt and HJ Scherpbier and Carla J. de Boer and Atie van der Plas and Marcel van den Berge and Arjan Stegeman and Saskia Baas and L. Hage de Looff and Anton G. M. Buiting and A Reuwer and Jacobien Veenemans and Bastiaan B. Wintermans and Marjolijn J. H. Pronk and Heidi S. M. Ammerlaan and Dmitri van den Bersselaar and E. S. de Munnik and Birgit Deiman and Arjan R. Jansz and Volkher Scharnhorst and Jeroen H. T. Tjhie and Maarten Wegdam and Arne van Eeden and Jeaninne Nellen and Wilma Brokking and L J M Elsenburg and H E Nobel and Marjo E.E. van Kasteren and Marvin A H Berrevoets and Annemarie E. Brouwer and Alida Adams and R van Erve and B A F M de Kruijf-van de Wiel and S Keelan-Phaf and Bianca van de Ven and B van der Ven and Anton G. M. Buiting and J L Murck and Theodora de Vries-Sluijs and Hannelore I Bax and E. C. M. van Gorp and N C de Jong-Peltenburg and M de Mendonç A Melo and Els van Nood and Jan L. Nouwen and Bart J. A. Rijnders and Casper Rokx and Carolina A M Schurink and Lynn J. Slobbe and A. Verbon and N Bassant and Jan E A van Beek and Marion E Vriesde and Laura van Zonneveld and J. de Groot and C. A. B. Boucher and Marion P. G. Koopmans and J J A van Kampen and P L A Fraaij and Annemarie M C van Rossum and Clementien L Vermont and Linda C van der Knaap and Eline G. Visser and Judith Branger and Ross Douma and Aafke S Cents-Bosma and C J H M Duijf-van de Ven and E F Schippers and C van Nieuwkoop and J M van Ijperen and J Geilings and G van der Hut and Nathalie D. van Burgel and Eliane M. S. Leyten and Luc Ben Stefan Gelinck and Femke P N Mollema and S Davids-Veldhuis and C Tearno and G S Wildenbeest and Esther Heikens and P H P Groeneveld and J W Bouwhuis and Adriana J J Lammers and Stefan Kraan and A G W van Hulzen and M S M Kruiper and G L van der Bliek and P C J Bor and Sylvia Brigitte Debast and Gertjan H.J. Wagenvoort and Frank P. Kroon and Mark G J de Boer and Hetty Jolink and Merel M C Lambregts and Anna H.E. Roukens and Henk Scheper and Willemien Dorama and Natasja van Holten and Eric C. J. Claas and Emanuelle Wessels and Jan G. den Hollander and Rachida el Moussaoui and Katalin Pog{\'a}ny and Christopher J Brouwer and J V Smit and D Struik-Kalkman and T van Niekerk and Oscar Pontesilli and Selwyn H. Lowe and Astrid M. L. Oude Lashof and Dirk Posthouwer and Marlies E. van Wolfswinkel and Robin Ackens and Kristina Burgers and Jolanda A Schippers and B Weijenberg-Maes and Inge H M van Loo and Thomas RA Havenith and Marit G.A. van Vonderen and Linda M. Kampschreur and S Faber and R Steeman-Bouma and Aziz Al Moujahid and G J Kootstra and Corine E. Delsing and M van der Burg-van de Plas and L Scheiberlich and Wolfgang Kortmann and Gitte van Twillert and R. Renckens and D Ruiter-Pronk and F A van Truijen-Oud and James W T Cohen Stuart and Ewoud Jansen and Martine Hoogewerf and Wouter Rozemeijer and Wil A van der Reijden and Jan C. Sinnige and Kees Brinkman and Guido E L van den Berk and Willem L. Blok and Kamilla D. Lettinga and Marieke de Regt and W. E. M. Schouten and Janneke Evelyne Stalenhoef and J Veenstra and Saskia M E Vrouenraets and H. G. Blaauw and G F Geerders and M J Kleene and M Kok and M. J. Rob Knapen and I B van der Mech{\'e} and E Mulder-Seeleman and A. J. Toonen and S. Wijnands and E Wttewaal and David Kwa and Reinout van Crevel and Koen J Van Aerde and Anton SM Dofferhoff and Stefanie S. V. Henriet and Hadewych J.M. ter Hofstede and Jacobien Hoogerwerf and Monique Keuter and O. Richel and Matthew Albers and K J T Grintjes-Huisman and Martin de Haan and M Marneef and Riet Strik-Albers and Janette Rahamat-Langendoen and Femke Stelma and D. Burger and E. H. Gisolf and R.J. Hassing and Mark A A Claassen and Gerjanne ter Beest and Petra van Bentum and Nienke Langebeek and R. Tiemessen and Caroline M A Swanink and S F L van Lelyveld and Robin Soetekouw and L M M van der Prijt and J van der Swaluw and N Bermon and R. Jansen and Bjorn L Herpers and Dick Veenendaal and Dominique W.M. Verhagen and Fanny N. Lauw and Marjolein van Broekhuizen and Margot van Wijk and W F W Bierman and Margreet Bakker and Johanneke Kleinnijenhuis and Eveline Kloeze and Ananja Middel and Douwe F. Postma and Elisabeth H. Schölvinck and Ymkje Stienstra and Anna Verhage and Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker and Andr{\'e} Boonstra and H de Groot-de Jonge and P A van der Meulen and D A de Weerd and Hubert G. M. Niesters and Coretta van Leer-Buter and Marjolein Knoester and A. I. M. Hoepelman and Joop Arends and Roos E. Barth and Anke H. W. Bruns and Pauline M. Ellerbroek and Tania Mudrikova and Jan Jelrik Oosterheert and E M Schadd and Berend J. van Welzen and K Aarsman and B M G Griffioen-van Santen and I F de Kroon and Maria P A van Berkel and Charlotte van Rooijen and Rob Schuurman and F. Verduyn-Lunel and A. M. J. Wensing and Louis Bont and S. P. M. Geelen and Yvette G T Loeffen and T F W Wolfs and N. Nauta and E O W Rooijakkers and Hilda Holtsema and R Voigt and Diederik van de Wetering and Alan Gabbai Alberto and I H van der Meer and Andert Rosingh and Teysir Halaby and S. Zaheri and Anders Boyd and Daniela Bezemer and Ard van Sighem and Colette Smit and M. M. J. Hillebregt and Arjan de Jong and T. Woudstra and D Bergsma and Rosemarie Meijering and Leen Van de Sande and T Rutkens and S van der Vliet and L de Groot and Machiel van den Akker and Y Bakker and A el Berkaoui and Martijn T. Bezemer and N Br{\'e}tin and E Djoechro and Marian Groters and Eline Bakker Kruijne and K J Lelivelt and C Lodewijk and E Lucas and L Munjishvili and Fleur P. Paling and B Peeck and Christina Ree and Robert A. Regtop and Y M C Ruijs and Marianne Schoorl and P. P. Schn{\"o}rr and A Scheigrond and Erik van Tuijn and L Veenenberg and Karel Visser and Eric C Witte and Maartje van Frankenhuijsen and Thierry All{\`e}gre and Djamila Makhloufi and Jean Michel Livrozet and Pierre Chiarello and Mathieu Godinot and Florence Brunel-Dalmas and Sylvie Gibert and Christian Tr{\'e}po and Dominique Peyramond and Patrick Miailhes and Joseph Koffi and Val{\'e}rie Thoirain and Corinne Brochier and Thomas Baudry and Sylvie Pailhes and Alain Lafeuillade and Gis{\`e}le Philip and Gilles Hittinger and Assi Assi and V{\'e}ronique Lambry and {\'E}ric Rosenthal and A. Naqvi and Brigitte Dunais and Eric Cua and Christian Pradier and Jacques Durant and Aline Jouli{\'e} and Denis Quinsat and Serge Tempesta and Isabelle Ravaux and Isabelle Poizot Martin and Olivia Faucher and Nicolas Cloarec and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Champagne and Gilles Pichancourt and P. Morlat and Thierry Pistone and Fabrice Bonnet and Patrick Merci{\'e} and Isabelle Faure and Mojgan Hessamfar and Denis Malvy and Denis Lacoste and Marion Pertusa and M.A. Vandenhende and No{\"e}lle Bernard and F. Paccalin and C{\'e}dric Martell and Julien Roger-Schmelz and M. C. Receveur and Pierre Duffau and Denis Dondia and Emmanuel Ribeiro and Sabrina Caltado and Didier Neau and Micheline Dupont and Herv{\'e} Dutronc and Fr{\'e}deric-Antoine Dauchy and Charles Cazanave and M O Vareil and Ga{\"e}tane Wirth and S{\'e}verine Le Puil and Jean luc Pellegrin and Isabelle Raymond and Jean-François Viallard and Severin Chaigne de Lalande and Daniel Garipuy and Pierre Delobel and Martine Obadia and Lise Cuzin and Muriel Alvarez and Noemie Biezunski and Lydie Porte and Patrice Massip and Alexa Debard and Florence Balsarin and M Lagarrigue and F Pr{\'e}voteau du Clary and Christianne Aquilina and J. Reynes and Vincent Baillat and Corinne Merle and Vincent Lemoing and Nadine Atoui and Alain Makinson and Jean-Marc Jacquet and Christina K. Psomas and Christine Tramoni and Hugues Auma{\^i}tre and Mathieu Saada and Marie M{\'e}dus and Martine Malet and Aur{\'e}lia Eden and S{\'e}gol{\`e}ne Neuville and Milagros Ferreyra and Albert Sotto and Claudine Barbuat and Isabelle Rouanet and Didier Leureillard and Jean Marc Mauboussin and Catherine Lechiche and R{\'e}gine Donsesco and Andr{\'e} Cabi{\'e} and Sylvie Abel and Sandrine Pierre-François and A. Batala and C. Cerland and Camille Rangom and Nadine Theresine and Bruno Hoen and Isabelle Lamaury and Isabelle Fabre and Kinda Schepers and Elodie Curlier and Rachida Ouissa and Catherine Gaud and Carole Ricaud and R Rodet and Guillaume Wartel and Carmele Sautron and Genevi{\`e}ve Beck-Wirth and Catherine Michel and Charles Beck and J M Halna and Jakub Kowalczyk and Meryem Benomar and Christine Drobacheff-Thiebaut and Catherine Chirouze and Jean-François Faucher and François Parcelier and Adeline Foltzer and C{\'e}cile Haffner-Mauvais and Mathieu Hustache Mathieu and Aur{\'e}lie Proust and Lionel Piroth and Pascal Chavanet and Michel Duong and Marielle Buisson and Anne Waldner and Sophie Mahy and Sandrine Gohier and Delphine Croisier and Thierry May and M Delestan and Marie Andr{\'e} and Mahsa Mohseni Zadeh and Martin Martinot and B{\'e}atrice Rosolen and Anne Pachart and Beno{\^i}t Martha and No{\"e}lle Jeunet and David Rey and Christine Cheneau and Marialuisa Partisani and Mich{\`e}le Priester and Claudine Bernard-Henry and M. L. Batard and Patricia Fischer and Jean Luc Berger and Isabelle Kmiec and Olivier Robineau and Thomas Huleux and Faiza Ajana and Isabelle Alcaraz and Christophe Allienne and V{\'e}ronique Baclet and Agn{\`e}s Meybeck and Michel Valette and Nathalie Viget and Emmanuelle Aissi and Rapha{\"e}l Biekre and Pauline Cornavin and Dominique Merrien and Jean-Christophe Seghezzi and Mo{\"i}se Machado and Georges Diab and François Raffi and B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte Bonnet and Clotilde Allavena and Olivier Grossi and V{\'e}ronique Reliquet and Eric Billaud and C{\'e}cile Brunet and Sabelline Bouchez and Pascale Morineau-Le Houssine and Fabienne Sauser and David Boutoille and Michel Besnier and Herv{\'e} Hue and Nolwenn Hall and Delphine Brosseau and Faouzi Souala and Christian Michelet and Pierre Tattevin and C{\'e}dric Arvieux and Matthieu Revest and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Leroy and Jean Marc Chapplain and Matthieu Dupont and Fabien Fily and Sol{\`e}ne Patra-Delo and C.E. LeFeuvre and Louis Arthur Bernard and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Bastides and Pascale Nau and Renaud Verdon and Arnaud de la Blanchardi{\`e}re and Anne Martin and Philippe Feret and Lo{\"i}k Geffray and Corinne Daniel and Jennifer M. Rohan and Pascale Fialaire and Jean Marie Chennebault and Val{\'e}rie Rabier and Pierre Abgueguen and Sami Rehaiem and Odile Luycx and Mathilde Niault and Philippe Moreau and Yves Poinsignon and Marie Goussef and Virginie Mouton-Rioux and D. Houlbert and Sandrine Alvarez-Huve and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}rique Barbe and Sophie Haret and Philippe Van de Perre and Sophie Leantez-Nainville and J L Esnault and Thomas Guimard and Isabelle Suaud and Jean Jacques Girard and V{\'e}ronique Simonet and Yasmine Debab and Jean Luc Schmit and Christine Jacomet and Pierre Weinberck and Claire Genet and Pauline Pinet and Sophie Ducroix and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Durox and Eric Denes and Bruno Abraham and Florence Gourdon and Odile Antoniotti and Jean-Michel Molina and Samuel Ferret and Caroline Lascoux-Combe and Matthieu Lafaurie and Nathalie Colin de Verdi{\`e}re and Diane Ponscarme and N De Castro and Alexandre Aslan and Willy Rozenbaum and Claire Pintado and François Clavel and Olivier Taul{\'e}ra and Caroline Gatey and Anne-Lise Munier and Sandrine Gazaigne and Pauline Penot and Guillaume Conort and Nathalie Lerolle and Anne Leplatois and St{\'e}phanie Balausine and Jeannine Delgado and Julie Timsit and Magda Tabet and Laurence G{\'e}rard and Pierre-Marie Girard and Odile Picard and J{\"u}rgen Tredup and Diane Bollens and Nadia Valin and Pauline Campa and Julie Bottero and B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte Lefebvre and Muriel Tourneur and Laurent Fonquernie and Charlotte Wemmert and J Lagneau and Yazdan Yazdanpanah and Bao Phung and Adriana Pinto and Doroth{\'e}e Vallois and Ornella Cabras and Françoise Louni and Gilles Pialoux and Thomas Lyavanc and Val{\'e}rie Berrebi and Julie Chas and Sophie Lenagat and Agathe Rami and Myriam Diemer and Maguy Parrinello and Audrey Depond and D Salmon and Lo{\"i}c Guillevin and Tassadit Tahi and Linda B{\'e}larbi and Pierre Loulergue and O Zak Dit Zbar and Odile Launay and Benjamin Silbermann and Catherine Leport and Laura Alagna and Mariel Pietri and Anne Simon and Manuela Bonmarchand and Naouel Amirat and François Pichon and Myriam Kirstetter and Christine Katlama and Marc Antoine Valantin and Roland Tubiana and Fabienne Caby and Luminita Schneider and Nadine Ktorza and Ruxandra Calin and Audrey Merlet and Saadia Ben Abdallah and Laurence Weiss and Martin Buisson and Dominique Batisse and Marina Karmochine and Juliette Pavie and Catherine Minozzi and Didier Jayle and Philippe Castel and Jean Derouineau and Pascale Kousignan and Murielle Eliazevitch and Isabelle Pierre and Lio Collias and Jean Paul Viard and Jacques Gilquin and Alain Sobel and Laurence Slama and Jade Ghosn and Blanka Hadacek and Nugyen Thu-Huyn and Lella Nait-Ighil and Agn{\'e}s Cros and Aline Maignan and Claudine Duvivier and Paul Henri Consigny and Fanny Lanternier and Michka Shoai-Tehrani and Fatima Touam and Saadia Jerbi and Lo{\"i}c Bodard and Corinne Jung and C{\'e}cile Goujard and Yann Quertainmont and Martin Duracinsky and Olivier S{\'e}g{\'e}ral and Arnaud Blanc and Delphine Peretti and Antoine Ch{\'e}ret and Christelle Chantalat and Marie Josée Dulucq and Yves L{\'e}vy and Jean-Daniel Leli{\`e}vre and Anne sophie Lascaux and C{\'e}cile Dumont and François Bou{\'e} and V{\'e}ronique Chambrin and Sophie Abgrall and Imad Kansau and Mariem Raho-Moussa and Pierre de Truchis and Aur{\'e}lien Dinh and Benjamin Davido and Dhiba Marigot and Huguette Berth{\'e} and Alain Devidas and Pierre Chevojon and Am{\'e}lie Chabrol and Nouara Agher and Y Lemercier and Fabrice Chaix and Isabelle Turpault and Olivier Bouchaud and Patricia Honor{\'e} and Elisabeth Rouveix and Evelyne Reimann and Alix Greder Belan and Claire Godin Collet and Safia Souak and Emmanuel Mortier and Martine Bloch and A. M. Simonpoli and V{\'e}ronique Manceron and Isabelle Cahitte and Emmanuel Hiraux and Erik Lafon and François Cordonnier and A Zeng and David Zucman and Catherine Majerholc and Dominique Bornarel and Agn{\`e}s Uludag and Justine Gellen‐Dautremer and Agnès Lefort and Christine Bazin and Vincent Daneluzzi and Juliette Gerbe and Vincent Jeantils and M{\'e}lissa Coupard and Olivier Patey and Jonas Bantsimba and Sophie Delllion and Pauline Caraux Paz and Beno{\^i}t Cazenave and Laurent Richier and Val{\'e}rie Garrait and Isabelle Delacroix and Brigitte Elharrar and Daniel Vittecoq and Claudine Bolliot and Annie Leprêtre and Philippe Genet and Virginie Masse and V{\'e}ronique Perrone and Jean-Luc Boussard and Patricia Chardon and Eric Froguel and Philippe F Simon and Sylvie Tassi and Veronique Avettand Fenoel and Francis Barin and Christine Bourgeois and Fanny Cardon and Marie Laure Chaix and Jean François Delfraissy and Asma Essat and Hugues Fischer and Camille L{\'e}curoux and Laurence Meyer and Ventzislava Petrov-Sanchez and Christine Rouzioux and Asier S{\'a}ez-Ciri{\'o}n and R{\'e}monie Seng and Kristin Kuldanek and Scott R Mullaney and Carmel Young and Antonella Zucchetti and Margaret A. Bevan and Sinead McKernan and Emily Wandolo and Celia Richardson and Elaney Youssef and Pippa Green and Sue Faulkner and Rebecca Faville and Sandra Herman and Chris C Care and Helen Blackman and Katharine Bellenger and Keith Fairbrother and Andrew Phillips and Abdel G. Babiker and Valerie Delpech and Sarah Fidler and Mindy Clarke and Julie Fox and Richard Gilson and David Goldberg and David Hawkins and Anne Johnson and Margaret Johnson and Ken Mclean and Eleni Nastouli and Frank A. Post and N. Kennedy and Jillian Pritchard and Ushan Andrady and Nikita Rajda and C. Donnelly and Shannon McKernan and Stacy Marie Drake and Gerry Gilleran and David J White and Jonathan Ross and John D Harding and R J Faville and John Sweeney and P. J. Flegg and S Toomer and Helen E. Wilding and Ruth Woodward and Gillian Dean and Celia Richardson and Nicky Perry and Mark Gompels and Louise Jennings and D Bansaal and M Browing and Loris Huepenbecker Connolly and B Stanley and Steven Estreich and A. Magdy and C. O'Mahony and Photograph by Allen Fraser. and S P R Jebakumar and Ludivine David and Richard K. Mette and Henry Summerfield and M Evans and C White and Rowena Robertson and Choo Bee Lean and Sheila Morris and Audrey Winter and Simon Faulkner and Benjamin Goorney and L Howard and Iain Fairley and Clare Stemp and Leslie Short and Miquel G{\'o}mez and Firm-Lewis J. Young and Monique Roberts and Staci Green and Kaarthik Sivakumar and James Isaac Templeton Minton and A Siminoni and Jacqueline Calderwood and Dale Greenhough and Caroline Navega Desouza and Lisa Muthern and Chloe Orkin and Sara C. Murphy and M Truvedi and Ken Mclean and Dan Hawkins and Chris Higgs and Alex Moyes and Simone Antonucci and Sarah McCormack and William Lynn and M. Bevan and Julie Fox and A Teague and J Anderson and Sifiso Mguni and Frank A. Post and L Campbell and Charles Mazhude and Hayley Alexandra Russell and Richard Gilson and G Carrick and Jonathan G Ainsworth and Anele Waters and Pj Byrne and M. R. Johnson and S Fidler and Kristin Kuldanek and Steve Mullaney and Veronica Lawlor and R L Melville and Ashwini Sukthankar and Surgeon V. Gunson Thorpe and C Murphy and Edmund Wilkins and Shekh Belal Ahmad and Pippa Green and Sumit Prakash Tayal and Edgar Ong and J. N. Meaden and Lynn Riddell and David Loay and Keith A Peacock and Horatio W. Blackman and V. Harindra and Adham Mohsin Saeed and S. Allen and Usha Natarajan and Osoba A. Williams and Hoda Lacey and Child Care and Christine E Bowman and Schmit Herman and S. Devendra and Joan E Wither and Ann Bridgwood and Girindra Prasad Singh and S. L. Bushby and David Kellock and Sheryl A. Young and Guy Rooney and B Snart and J. Currie and Major E. M. Fitzgerald and J Arumainayyagam and Shamala Chandramani and Sasikala Rajamanoharan and Tm Robinson and Brian M. Taylor and Cathi Brewer and Christoph Mayr and Wolfgang Schmidt and Andrea Speidel and Frank Strohbach and Keikawus N. Arast{\'e}h and Christiane Cordes and Manfred St{\"u}ndel and Jörg Claus and Axel Baumgarten and Andreas Carganico and Patrick Ingiliz and Stephan Dupke and M Freiwald and Michael J. Rausch and Arend Moll and D. Schleehauf and Bettina Hintsche and Gerd Klausen and Heiko K. Jessen and Arne B Jessen and Siegfried K{\"o}ppe and Peter Kreckel and Dietmar Schranz and Klaus Fischer and Hubert Schulbin and Miriam Speer and Tobias Glaunsinger and Thomas Wicke and Bernhard Bieniek and Heribert Hillenbrand and Frank Schlote and Elke Lauenroth-Mai and Christoph Schuler and Dirk Sch{\"u}rmann and Hans Wesselmann and Norbert H Brockmeyer and Peter Gehring and Dirk Schmal{\"o}er and Martin Hower and Petra Spornraft-Ragaller and Dieter H{\"a}ussinger and Stefan Reuter and Stefan Esser and Rudolf Markus and Burkhard Kreft and Dirk Berzow and Andreas Christl and A. M. Meyer and Andreas Plettenberg and Albrecht Stoehr and Katrin Graefe and Thore Lorenzen and Axel Adam and Knut Schewe and Lutwin Weitner and Stefan Fenske and Stefan Hansen and Hans J{\"u}rgen Stellbrink and Dorothea Franziska Wiemer and Sandra Hertling and Reinhold E. Schmidt and Peter Arbter and Bernd Claus and Peter Robert Galle and Hans J{\"a}ger and Eva J{\"a} Gel-Guedes and Nils Postel and Monika Fr{\"o}schl and Christoph D. Spinner and Jo-Anne Lesley Lee Bogner and Bernd Salzberger and Jürgen Schölmerich and Franz Audebert and Ties Marquardt and Andreas Schaffert and Eiko Schnaitmann and Andreas Trein and Bernhard Frietsch and Marcus M{\"u}ller and Albrecht Ulmer and Barbara Detering-H{\"u}bner and Peter Kern and Franz Schubert and G{\^u}nther Dehn and Maria L. Schreiber and Cengiz G{\"u}ler and Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer and Daniel Schmidt and Karolin Meixenberger and Norbert Bannert},
  pages={540 - 545}
We discovered a highly virulent variant of subtype-B HIV-1 in the Netherlands. One hundred nine individuals with this variant had a 0.54 to 0.74 log10 increase (i.e., a ~3.5-fold to 5.5-fold increase) in viral load compared with, and exhibited CD4 cell decline twice as fast as, 6604 individuals with other subtype-B strains. Without treatment, advanced HIV—CD4 cell counts below 350 cells per cubic millimeter, with long-term clinical consequences—is expected to be reached, on average, 9 months… 
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When viruses become more virulent.
[Figure: see text].
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A prospective study on the course of HIV infection among 225 HIV-1-infected homosexual men from the Amsterdam cohort was designed, finding an association between high-replicating, SI isolates with a tropism for T-cell lines and enhanced CD4+ T- cell depletion and progression to AIDS.
Variation in HIV-1 set-point viral load: Epidemiological analysis and an evolutionary hypothesis
It is hypothesized that HIV-1 could have evolved to optimize its transmissibility, a form of adaptation to the human host population, and the evidence available to date is reviewed to discuss how this evolutionary hypothesis can be tested.
Estimated transmissibility and impact of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England
The rapid spread of VOC 202012/01 suggests that it transmits more efficiently from person to person than preexisting variants of SARS-CoV-2, which could lead to global surges in COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths, so there is an urgent need to estimate how much more quickly this variant spreads.
Fifth mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase contributes to the development of high-level resistance to zidovudine.
Using an HIV marker rescue system, a fifth mutation conferring resistance to zidovudine is mapped and identified, namely, methionine to leucine at codon 41 of HIV RT, enabling rapid and direct correlation between an RT genotype and sensitivity of the virus.
A Systematic Phylogenetic Approach to Study the Interaction of HIV-1 With Coinfections, Noncommunicable Diseases, and Opportunistic Diseases.
The consistent and robust signal for coinfections and comorbidities highlights the strong interaction of HIV-1 and other infections and shows the potential of combining phylogenetic methods to identify disease traits that are likely to be related to virus genetic factors.
Origins of HIV and the AIDS pandemic.
Tracing the genetic changes that occurred as SIVs crossed from monkeys to apes and from apes to humans provides a new framework to examine the requirements of successful host switches and to gauge future zoonotic risk.