A higher-level taxonomy for hummingbirds

  title={A higher-level taxonomy for hummingbirds},
  author={Jimmy A. McGuire and Christopher C. Witt and Jr. J. V. Remsen and Robert Dudley and Douglas L. Altshuler},
  journal={Journal of Ornithology},
In the context of a recently published phylogenetic estimate for 151 hummingbird species, we provide an expanded informal taxonomy, as well as a formal phylogenetic taxonomy for Trochilidae that follows the precepts of the PhyloCode, but remains consistent with the hierarchical nomenclature of the Linnaean system. We compare the recently published phylogenetic hypothesis with those of prior higher-level and more taxonomically circumscribed phylogenetic studies. We recommend the recognition of… 
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The hypothesis that, given niche conservatism, relatedness of co-occurring hummingbird species of a given clade will increase at greater distances from the elevation where it originated is evaluated, finding no overall support for the conservatism and zone of origin hypotheses.
The Basilinna genus (Aves: Trochilidae): an evaluation based on molecular evidence and implications for the genus Hylocharis
The taxonomic status of the genus Hylocharis, a member of the Emeraldscomplex, whose relationships with other genera are unclear is investigated; the existence of the Basilinna genus is corroborated and is a paraphyletic genus that includes species belonging to the genus Amazilia.
Phylogeny and biogeography of a subclade of mangoes (Aves, Trochilidae)
It is found that several phenomena such as the uplift of the Andes, the marine transgressions of the Plio–Pleistocene, the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama and the climatic oscillations of the Pleistocene might be at least, in part, responsible for the diversification of this group in both the lowlands and the highlands of this region of South America.
A striking, critically endangered, new species of hillstar (Trochilidae: Oreotrochilus) from the southwestern Andes of Ecuador
A new species of the genus Oreotrochilus from the southwestern Andes of Ecuador is described, which is most similar in adult male plumage to O. stolzmanni and O. melanogaster, but shows unique combinations of plumage characters that are likely to act as social signals.
In and out of Mesoamerica: temporal divergence of Amazilia hummingbirds pre‐dates the orthodox account of the completion of the Isthmus of Panama
We used mitochondrial DNA sequences to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Mesoamerican Amazilia hummingbirds (Trochilidae). The phylogeny was used to identify vicariance scenarios,
DNA from a 100-year-old holotype confirms the validity of a potentially extinct hummingbird species
We used mtDNA sequence data to confirm that the controversial 100-year-old holotype of the Bogotá sunangel (Heliangelus zusii) represents a valid species. We demonstrate that H. zusii is genetically
Molecular Phylogenetics and the Diversification of Hummingbirds
Biogeography and taxonomy of racket-tail hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae: Ocreatus): evidence for species delimitation from morphology and display behavior.
The results indicate that the genus should be considered a superspecies with four species, the monotypic Ocreatus addae, O. annae, and O. peruanus, and the polytypic O. underwoodii (including the subspecies under woodii, discifer, incommodus, melanantherus, polystictus).
Introduction to the Skeleton of Hummingbirds (Aves: Apodiformes, Trochilidae) in Functional and Phylogenetic Contexts
This monograph deals with the syrinx and with skeletal features mainly associated with nectarivory and hovering, emphasizing characters that are unique to hummingbirds within Apodiformes.


Phylogenetic taxonomy (de Queiroz and Gauthier, 1990, 1992) entails the naming of clades, a procedure distinct from and sec? ondary to the process of clade recognition. Current procedures for
Phylogenetic patterns in the Trochilidae
An allozymic survey of major groups of hummingbirds designed to test phylogenetic hypotheses derived from previous morphological and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses is reported, suggesting that hummingbird taxa are relatively old.
Abstract The phylogenetic relationships between early Tertiary and extant apodiform birds are only poorly understood, and this study is the first cladistic approach to this problem in which the
Phylogeny of the hermit hummingbirds (trochilidae: Phaethornithinae)
Abstract A phylogeny of the hummingbirds of the genera Ramphodon, Eutoxeres, Glaucis, Threnetes, and Phaethornis is presented on the basis of external morphological characters. All 34 species of
Strong Diversification at the Treeline among Metallura Hummingbirds
Analysis of nucleotide sequences from three different mitochondrial gene fragments show that Metallura forms a monophyletic group whose sister taxon is the genus Chalcostig- ma, confirming the idea that montane forest and treeline forms are sister taxa in a strict sense.
Old World Fossil Record of Modern-Type Hummingbirds
  • G. Mayr
  • Environmental Science
  • 2004
Tiny skeletons of stem-group hummingbirds from the early Oligocene of Germany that are of essentially modern appearance and exhibit morphological specializations toward nectarivory and hovering flight demonstrate that early hummingbird evolution was not restricted to the New World.
DNA hybridization evidence for the principal lineages of hummingbirds (Aves:Trochilidae).
A complete matrix of DNA hybridization distances among 26 hummingbirds and an outgroup swift was generated to determine the principal hummingbird lineages and reveal some basic aspects of hummingbird ecologic and morphologic evolution.
A new species of metaltail hummingbird from northern Peru
In October 1977 during a preliminary LSUMZ expedition to the Divisoria de Huancabamba, Department of Piura, Peru, I collected 2 specimens of a previously undescribed metaltail hummingbird, which field sketches of the birds showed sufficient differences from other species of Metallura to suggest they represented an undescribing form.
A new Eocene swift‐like bird with a peculiar feathering
A new taxon of swift-like birds is described from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Germany) and exhibits a completely unexpected feathering, which contrasts sharply with that of recent swifts.