Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity
OBJECTIVE In the last decades, the epidemiological and demographic transition in Chile has resulted in a considerable increase in diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a health promotion programme (HPP) on behaviour in terms of the dimensions of the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP) based on Pender's model. Pender based his research on the development of a model that explains, predicts and modifies forms of behaviour that promote health; an HPP based on this model may achieve positive changes that promote a healthy lifestyle. STUDY DESIGN This was a comparative study and the participants were Seventh-Day Adventist Church women (SDAW) and non-Seventh-Day Adventist Church women (NSDAW) aged 20-45 years from the urban area of Villarrica, Ninth Region of Chile. From a population of 300 women (150 SDAW and 150 NSDAW), a random sample of 18 SDAW and 18 NSDAW was chosen. Both groups were comparable in age and socio-economic status. An HPP was undertaken for both groups between April and September 2002. The response rate was 100%. METHODS The overall score and the scores for the six dimensions of the HPLP (self-actualization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, interpersonal support and stress management) were measured in the pre- and post-test periods. Statistical analysis was performed using the Sign test and Wilcoxon's test. Data were processed using the statistical analysis system. RESULTS In both groups, the median scores increased significantly between the pre- and post-test periods for the overall HPLP score and the scores of the six dimensions. When comparing the median scores in SDAW with NSDAW, only the score for nutrition was significantly higher in SDAW than NSDAW in both the pre-test (P<0.0001) and post-test (P<0.0005) periods. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate that an HPP based on Pender's model improves behaviour related to a health-promoting lifestyle in both groups, but more so for the NASDW.