A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant

@article{Abbott2017AGS,
  title={A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant},
  author={Brad Abbott and Richard J. Abbott and Thomas Abbott and Fausto Acernese and Kendall Ackley and Carl Adams and Todd Adams and Paolo Addesso and Rana X. Adhikari and V B Adya and Christoph Affeldt and Mohammad Afrough and Bhanu Agarwal and Michalis Agathos and Kazuhiro Agatsuma and Nancy Aggarwal and Odylio D. Aguiar and Lloyd Paul Aiello and Anirban Ain and Parameswaran Ajith and Bruce Allen and Gabrielle Allen and Annalisa Allocca and Paul A Altin and A. Amato and Alena Ananyeva and Stuart B. Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and S. V. Angelova and Sarah Antier and Stephen Appert and Koya Arai and M. C. Araya and Joseph Areeda and Nicolas Arnaud and K. G. Arun and Stefano Ascenzi and Gregory Ashton and Melanie Ast and Stuart M. Aston and Pia Astone and D. V. Atallah and Peter Aufmuth and C. Aulbert and K. AultONeal and Christopher C. Austin and Adriana {\'A}vila-{\'A}lvarez and Stanislav Babak and Philippe Bacon and M. K. M. Bader and S Bae and Paul T. Baker and F. Baldaccini and Giulio Ballardin and Stefan W. Ballmer and Sharan Banagiri and J. C. B. Barayoga and S. E. Barclay and Barry C. Barish and Daniel H. N. Barker and Kevin Barkett and Fabrizio Barone and B. W. Barr and Lisa Barsotti and Matteo Barsuglia and D{\'a}niel Barta and Jms Bartlett and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and Andrea Basti and J. C. Batch and Mateusz Bawaj and Joseph Bayley and Marco Bazzan and Bence B'ecsy and C. Beer and Michał Bejger and I. Belahcene and A. S. Bell and B. K. Berger and Gerald Bergmann and John J Bero and Christopher P. L. Berry and Diego Bersanetti and Alessandro Bertolini and J Betzwieser and Swetha Bhagwat and R. Bhandare and I. A. Bilenko and G Billingsley and Chris Billman and Jeremy Birch and R Birney and Ofek Birnholtz and Sebastien Biscans and Sylvia Biscoveanu and A. Bisht and Massimiliano Bitossi and Christopher Michael Biwer and M. A. Bizouard and J. K. Blackburn and Jonathan Blackman and Carl Blair and David G Blair and R. M. Blair and Steven Bloemen and Oliver Bock and Nina Bode and Michel Boer and Gilles Bogaert and Alejandro Boh{\'e} and F. Bondu and Edgard Bonilla and Romain Bonnand and Boris A. Boom and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Suvadeep Bose and K. Bossie and Yann Bouffanais and Aaron T. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and Patrick R. Brady and Marica Branchesi and James E. Brau and Tristan Briant and A. Brillet and Martin Brinkmann and V. Brisson and Patrick Brockill and J. E. Broida and A. F. Brooks and D. A. Brown and D D Brown and Sharon Brunett and C. C. Buchanan and Aaron Buikema and Tomasz Bulik and H. J. Bulten and Alessandra Buonanno and D. Buskulic and Christelle Buy and Robert L. Byer and Miriam Cabero and Laura Cadonati and Gianpietro Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and Juan Calder{\'o}n Bustillo and Thomas A. Callister and Enrico Calloni and Jordan B. Camp and Maurizio Canepa and Priscilla Canizares and Kipp Cannon and H. Cao and J. Cao and C. D. Capano and E. Capocasa and Franco Carbognani and Santiago Caride and Matthew Carney and J. Casanueva Diaz and Claudio Casentini and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and Giancarlo Cella and Carlos Cepeda and Pablo Cerd'a-Dur'an and G. Cerretani and Elisa Cesarini and Sydney JoAnne Chamberlin and Man Leong Chan and S. Chao and P R Charlton and Eve A. Chase and {\'E}ric Chassande-Mottin and Deep Chatterjee and Katerina Chatziioannou and Belinda D. Cheeseboro and H. Y. Chen and X. Chen and Y. R. Chen and H.-P. Cheng and Hanyu Chia and Andrea Chincarini and Antonino Chiummo and T. Chmiel and H. S. Cho and M. Cho and Jong H. Chow and Nelson Christensen and Qi Chu and Alvin J. K. Chua and Sheon S Y Chua and Adrian Ka-Wai Chung and S. Chung and Giacomo Ciani and Riccardo Ciolfi and Caterina Cirelli and A Cirone and Filiberto Clara and J A Clark and Patrick Clearwater and F. Cleva and Candida Gori Cocchieri and Eliana Marina Coccia and P.-F. Cohadon and David Cohen and Alberto Colla and Christophe Collette and Lynn R. Cominsky and Marcio Constancio and L Conti and S J Cooper and P. Corban and Thomas R. Corbitt and Isabel Cordero-Carri'on and K. Rainer Corley and Neil J. Cornish and Alessandra Corsi and Samuele Cortese and C. A. Costa and Michael W. Coughlin and S Coughlin and J.-P. Coulon and Stefanie Countryman and Peter Couvares and P. B. Covas and Edith Cowan and D. M. Coward and M. J. Cowart and D. C. Coyne and Robert Coyne and Jolien D. E. Creighton and T. D. Creighton and Jonathan Cripe and S. Gwynne Crowder and Torrey Cullen and Andrew Cumming and L. Cunningham and Elena Cuoco and Tito Dal Canton and Gergely D'alya and S L Danilishin and Sabrina D’Antonio and Karsten Danzmann and Abhigyan Dasgupta and Carlos F. Da Silva Costa and Laurence Elise Helene Datrier and Vincenzino Dattilo and Itishri Dave and M. Davier and Derek Davis and E J Daw and B. Day and Soumi De and Daniel B. DeBra and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and Martina de Laurentis and Samuel Del'eglise and Walter del Pozzo and Nicholas Demos and Thomas Denker and Thomas Dent and Roberto De Pietri and Vladimir Dergachev and Rosario De Rosa and R. T. Derosa and Camilla de Rossi and Riccardo DeSalvo and Omar de Varona and Jan Devenson and Sanjeev V. Dhurandhar and M. C. D'iaz and L. Di Fiore and Matteo di Giovanni and Tristano Di Girolamo and Alberto Di Lieto and Sibilla Di Pace and I. Di Palma and Francesco Di Renzo and Zoheyr Doctor and Vincent Dolique and Frederick J. Donovan and K L Dooley and Suresh Doravari and Iain Dorrington and Rebecca Douglas and Miguel Dovale {\'A}lvarez and Turlough P. Downes and M. Drago and Christoph Dreissigacker and J C Driggers and Zhihui Du and M. Ducrot and Peter Dupej and Sheila E. Dwyer and Tega Boro Edo and Matthew C. Edwards and Anamaria Effler and H. B. Eggenstein and Phil Ehrens and Jan Eichholz and Stephen S. Eikenberry and Robert A. Eisenstein and Reed Essick and D Estevez and Zachariah B. Etienne and Taylor M. Etzel and Matthew Evans and Thomas M. Evans and Maxim Factourovich and V Fafone and H. Fair and Stephen Fairhurst and X. Fan and Stefania Farinon and Benjamin Farr and Will M. Farr and E Fauchon-Jones and Marc Favata and Maxime Fays and Christopher Fee and H. Fehrmann and Jon R. Feicht and Martin M. Fejer and {\'A}lvaro Fern{\'a}ndez-Galiana and I. Ferrante and E.C. Ferreira and Federico Ferrini and Francesco Fidecaro and Daniel Finstad and Irene Fiori and Donatella Fiorucci and Maya Fishbach and Rebecca Fisher and M. Fitz-Axen and R. Flaminio and Mark Fletcher and Heather Fong and Jos{\'e} A. Font and P W F Forsyth and Sophie Forsyth and J.-D. Fournier and Sergio Frasca and F. Frasconi and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and Raymond E. Frey and Volker Frey and Erin Murphy Fries and P. Fritschel and Valery Victor Frolov and P. J. Fulda and Matthew Fyffe and Hunter Gabbard and Bhooshan Gadre and Sebastian M. Gaebel and Jonathan R. Gair and Luca Gammaitoni and Miftar Ganija and Sampada Gaonkar and Cecilio Garc{\'i}a-Quir{\'o}s and F. Garufi and Bubba Gateley and Sergio Del Gaudio and G. Gaur and V. Gayathri and N. C. Gehrels and Gianluca Gemme and Emmanuelle G{\'e}nin and A. Gennai and Daniel George and Julia George and L'aszl'o 'A. Gergely and Vincent Germain and Sudarshan Ghonge and Abhirup Ghosh and Archisman Ghosh and S. Ghosh and J. A. Giaime and Krystal Giardina and A. Giazotto and Karl Gill and Lamar Glover and Evan Goetz and Ryan P. Goetz and S. Gomes and Boris Goncharov and Gabriela Gonz'alez and J. M. Gonzalez Castro and A. Gopakumar and Michael L. Gorodetsky and Sarah E. Gossan and Matthieu Gosselin and R. Gouaty and Aniello Grado and Christian Graef and Massimo Granata and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and C. Gray and Giuseppe Greco and Andrew Green and Elizabeth M. Gretarsson and Paul J. Groot and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and P. Gruning and G. Guidi and X. Guo and A. Gupta and M. Gupta and Kaitlin E. Gushwa and Eric K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and O Halim and Bernard Hall and Evan D. Hall and E. Z. Hamilton and Giles D. Hammond and Maria Haney and M. M. Hanke and Jonathan Hanks and Chad Hanna and Mark Hannam and Otto A. Hannuksela and James E. Hanson and T Hardwick and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and M. J. Hart and Carl-Johan Haster and K. Haughian and James Healy and Antoine Heidmann and Matthew Heintze and H. Heitmann and P. Hello and Gary Hemming and Martin Hendry and Ik Siong Heng and John Hennig and Alastair Heptonstall and Mich{\`e}le Heurs and Stefan Hild and Tanja Hinderer and David C. Hoak and David Jonathan Hofman and K. Holt and Daniel E. Holz and Philip F. Hopkins and C. Horst and James Hough and E. Alasdair Houston and E J Howell and Ali Hreibi and Y. M. Hu and Eliu A. Huerta and Dominique Huet and Barbara J. Hughey and Sascha Husa and S. H. Huttner and T. Huynh--Dinh and Nathaniel M. Indik and Ra Inta and Giuseppe Intini and Hafizah Noor Isa and J. M. Isac and Maximiliano Isi and Bala R. Iyer and Kiwamu Izumi and T. Jacqmin and Karan Jani and Piotr Jaranowski and S. Jawahar and F. Jim'enez-Forteza and WARREN W. Johnson and D. I. Jones and R. Jones and R. J. G. Jonker and Li Ju and Jonas Junker and Chinmay Kalaghatgi and Vassiliki Kalogera and Brittany Kamai and S Kandhasamy and G. Kang and Jonah Kanner and Shasvath J. Kapadia and Sudarshan Karki and Kai S. Karvinen and Marie Kasprzack and M. Katolik and Erik Katsavounidis and William G. Katzman and Steffen Kaufer and Keita Kawabe and Fabien K'ef'elian and David Keitel and Athol J. Kemball and Ross Kennedy and C. Kent and Joey Shapiro Key and Farid Ya. Khalili and I Khan and S. A. Khan and Z. A. Khan and E. A. Khazanov and N Kijbunchoo and Chunglee Kim and J. C. Kim and K. Kim and W. S. Kim and W. S. Kim and Y.-M. Kim and Seth J. Kimbrell and Eleanor J King and P. J. King and Maya M. Kinley-Hanlon and R Kirchhoff and J S Kissel and L. Kleybolte and Sergey Klimenko and Timothy D. J. Knowles and Patrick M. Koch and S. M. Koehlenbeck and Soumen Koley and V. T. Kondrashov and Antonios Kontos and Mikhail Korobko and William Z Korth and Izabela Jonek Kowalska and Darby Kozak and Carsten Kramer and V. Kringel and Badri Krishnan and Andrzej Kr'olak and G. Kuehn and P. Kumar and R. Kumar and S. Kumar and L. Kuo and Adam Kutynia and S. Kwang and Benjamin D. Lackey and K. H. Lai and Michael Landry and Ryan N. Lang and J. S. Lange and Brian Lantz and Robert K. Lanza and A. Lartaux-Vollard and Paul D. Lasky and Michael Laxen and Albert Lazzarini and Claudia Lazzaro and Paola Leaci and Sean Leavey and C. H. Lee and H. K. Lee and H. m. Lee and H. W. Lee and K. H. Lee and J. Lehmann and Amber Lenon and Matteo Leonardi and Nicolas Leroy and Nicolas Letendre and Yuri Levin and T. G. F. Li and S. D. Linker and Tyson B. Littenberg and J Liu and X. K. Liu and Rico K. L. Lo and N. A. Lockerbie and L London and Janet E. Lord and Marco Lorenzini and Vincent Loriette and Marc Lormand and Giovanni Losurdo and James Lough and Carlos O. Lousto and Geoffrey Lovelace and Harald Luck and Diana Lumaca and Andrew Lundgren and R. Lynch and Y. Ma and Ronaldas Macas and S. Macfoy and B. Machenschalk and Myron Macinnis and D Macleod and Ignacio Maga{\~n}a Hernandez and Fabian Maga{\~n}a-Sandoval and Lorena Maga{\~n}a Zertuche and Ryan Magee and E. Majorana and I. Maksimovic and Na Man and Vuk Mandic and Vanessa Mangano and Georgia L. Mansell and Magnus Manske and Maddalena Mantovani and Fabio Marchesoni and F. Marion and Szabolcs M'arka and Zsuzsa M'arka and Charalampos Markakis and Ashot Markosyan and Alex G. Markowitz and Edward Maros and Antonio Marquina and F. Martelli and Lionel Martellini and Iain W. Martin and R. M. Martin and Denis Martynov and K. O. Mason and E. Massera and A. Masserot and Thomas Massinger and M. Masso-Reid and Simone Mastrogiovanni and Andrew Matas and F. Matichard and Luca Matone and Nergis Mavalvala and N. Mazumder and R. McCarthy and D. E. McClelland and Scott McCormick and Lee McCuller and Scott C. McGuire and G. McIntyre and Jess McIver and David J. McManus and Lucy O McNeill and T G McRae and Sean T. McWilliams and Duncan Meacher and Grant David Meadors and Moritz Mehmet and Jeroen Meidam and E. Mejuto-Villa and Andrew Melatos and Greg Mendell and R. A. Mercer and E. L. Merilh and Mourad Merzougui and Sydney Meshkov and Chris Messenger and Cody Messick and R{\'e}mi Metzdorff and Patrick M. Meyers and Haixing Miao and Christine Michel and Hannah Middleton and Eugeniy Mikhailov and Leopoldo Milano and A. L. Miller and B. Miller and J. R. Miller and Margaret Millhouse and M. C. Milovich-Goff and Olivier Minazzoli and Yury Minenkov and Jin Ming and Chandra Kant Mishra and Subhasish Mitra and Vp. Mitrofanov and Gena Mitselmakher and Richard K Mittleman and Donald A Moffa and Andrea Moggi and Kentaro Mogushi and M. Mohan and Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar Mohapatra and M. Montani and Christopher J. Moore and Daniel Moraru and Gerardo Moreno and S. R. Morriss and B. Mours and Conor M Mow-Lowry and Guido Mueller and Alistair William Muir and Arunava Mukherjee and Dipanjan Mukherjee and Subroto Mukherjee and Nikhil Mukund and Adam J Mullavey and Jesper Munch and E. A. M. Muniz and Martina Muratore and P. G. Murray and Kevin J. Napier and Ilaria Nardecchia and L. Naticchioni and Rabindranath Nayak and Joshua Neilson and Gijs Nelemans and T. J. N. Nelson and Marcello Nery and Ansel Neunzert and Lucy Nevin and Jeffrey Newport and G. P. Newton and K. K. Y. Ng and T. T. Nguyen and David A. Nichols and Alex B. Nielsen and Samaya M. Nissanke and Alexander H. Nitz and Andreas Noack and F. Nocera and Dan Nolting and Christopher E. North and Laura K Nuttall and Jason Oberling and G. D. 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Vyatchanin and Andrew R. Wade and Leslie Wade and Madeline Wade and R. C. Walet and Marissa Walker and L. Wallace and Sin'ead Walsh and G. Wang and H. Wang and J. Z. Wang and W. H. Wang and Y. Wang and Robert L. Ward and Jimmy Warner and Michal Was and Jennifer Watchi and Betsy Weaver and L.-W. Wei and Michael Weinert and Alan J. Weinstein and Rainer Weiss and Linqing Wen and Erik Wessel and Peter Wessels and Julian Westerweck and Tobias Westphal and Karl Wette and James Whelan and S. E. Whitcomb and Bernard F Whiting and Chris Whittle and Dennis Wilken and D. Williams and R. D. Williams and Andrew R. Williamson and Josh Willis and Benno Willke and M. H. Wimmer and Walter Winkler and Christopher C. Wipf and Holger Wittel and Graham Woan and J. Woehler and J. K. Wofford and K. W. K. Wong and John R. Worden and J. Lenore Wright and D. S. Wu and Daniel Wysocki and S. Xiao and H. Yamamoto and Cregg C. Yancey and L. Yang and Ming Yap and Maher Yazback and Hang Yu and Haocun Yu and M. 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Rykoff and E. J. Sanchez and Victor E. Scarpine and Michael S. Schubnell and Ignacio Sevilla-Noarbe and M. Smith and R. C. Smith and Eric Suchyta and Gregory G. Tarl{\'e} and D. Thomas and R. C. Thomas and Michael Troxel and Douglas L. Tucker and Vinu Vikram and Alistair R. Walker and Jochen Weller and Y. Zhang and Joshua B. Haislip and Vladimir V. Kouprianov and Daniel E. Reichart and Leonardo Tartaglia and David. J. Sand and Stefano Valenti and S. Yang and Iair Arcavi and Griffin Hosseinzadeh and D. Andrew Howell and Curtis McCully and Dovi Poznanski and Sergiy S. Vasylyev and Nial R. Tanvir and Andrew J. Levan and Jens Hjorth and Zach Cano and C. M. Copperwheat and Antonio de Ugarte-Postigo and P. A. Evans and Johan P. U. Fynbo and Carlos Gonz'alez-Fern'andez and Jochen Greiner and Mike Irwin and Joseph D. Lyman and Ilya Mandel and Richard G. McMahon and Bo Milvang-Jensen and P. T. O’Brien and Julian P. Osborne and Daniel A. Perley and Elena Pian and Eliana Palazzi and Evert Rol and S. Rosetti and Stephan Rosswog and Antonia Rowlinson and Steve Schulze and D Steeghs and Christina C. Thone and Krzysztof Ulaczyk and Darach Watson and Klaas Wiersema and Vladimir M. Lipunov and E. Gorbovskoy and V. G. Kornilov and N. V. Tyurina and Pavel Balanutsa and D.Vlasenko and I.Gorbunov and Ricardo Podest{\'a} and H. Levato and Carlos Saffe and D.A.H.Buckley and Nikolay Budnev and O. A. Gress and Vladimir Yurkov and Rafael Rebolo and Miquel Serra-Ricart},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2017},
  volume={551},
  pages={85-88}
}
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A milestone of multi-messenger astronomy has been achieved with the detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star merger accompanied by observations of several associated

Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA

The capability of the network to determine the sky location of the source for gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of binary systems of compact objects, that is binary neutron star, neutron star–black hole, and binary black hole systems is studied.

Properties of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817

On August 17, 2017, the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors observed a low-mass compact binary inspiral. The initial sky localization of the source of the gravitational-wave

Improving cosmological parameter estimation with the future gravitational-wave standard siren observation from the Einstein Telescope

Detection of gravitational waves produced by the merger of binary compact objects could provide an independent way for measuring the luminosity distance to the gravitational-wave burst source,

Neutron Star Binary Mergers: The Legacy of GW170817 and Future Prospects

In 2015, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Advanced Virgo began observing the Universe in a revolutionary way. Gravitational waves from cosmic sources were

Testing the anisotropy of the universe using the simulated gravitational wave events from advanced LIGO and Virgo

The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) provides a powerful tool to constrain the cosmological parameters. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using GWs as standard sirens in testing

A Statistical Standard Siren Measurement of the Hubble Constant from the LIGO/Virgo Gravitational Wave Compact Object Merger GW190814 and Dark Energy Survey Galaxies

We present a measurement of the Hubble constant H0 using the gravitational wave (GW) event GW190814, which resulted from the coalescence of a 23 M⊙ black hole with a 2.6 M⊙ compact object, as a

Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy in the 2020s and 2030s

The 100 years since the publication of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity saw significant development of the understanding of the theory, the identification of potential astrophysical

Gaussian processes reconstruction of modified gravitational wave propagation

Recent work has shown that modified gravitational wave (GW) propagation can be a powerful probe of dark energy and modified gravity, specific to GW observations. We use the technique of Gaussian
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 96 REFERENCES

The Discovery of the Electromagnetic Counterpart of GW170817: Kilonova AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck

During the second observing run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo Interferometer, a gravitational-wave signal consistent with a binary neutron star

Determining the Hubble constant from gravitational wave observations of merging compact binaries

Recent observations have accumulated compelling evidence that some short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are associated with the mergers of neutron star (NS) binaries. This would indicate that the SGRB

Short GRB and binary black hole standard sirens as a probe of dark energy

Observations of the gravitational radiation from well-localized, inspiraling compact-object binaries can measure absolute source distances with high accuracy. When coupled with an independent

Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA

The sensitivity of the LIGO network to transient gravitational-wave signals is estimated, and the capability of the network to determine the sky location of the source is studied, to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves.

GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral

On August 17, 2017 at 12 ∶ 41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was

The Emergence of a Lanthanide-Rich Kilonova Following the Merger of Two Neutron Stars

We report the discovery and monitoring of the near-infrared counterpart (AT2017gfo) of a binary neutron-star merger event detected as a gravitational wave source by Advanced Laser Interferometer

Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), the optical counterpart to a gravitational wave source

A rapid astronomical search located the optical counterpart of the neutron star merger GW170817 and shows how these observations can be explained by an explosion known as a kilonova, which produces large quantities of heavy elements in nuclear reactions.

Gravitational Waves and Gamma-rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi

INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

We report the INTernational Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) detection of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A (discovered by Fermi-GBM) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.6, and, for the

Gravitational Waves and Gamma-rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB170817A was observed independently by the Fermi
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