A giant conodont with preserved muscle tissue from the Upper Ordovician of South Africa

@article{Gabbott1995AGC,
  title={A giant conodont with preserved muscle tissue from the Upper Ordovician of South Africa},
  author={Sarah E. Gabbott and Richard J. Aldridge and Johannes N. Theron},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1995},
  volume={374},
  pages={800-803}
}
AN exceptionally preserved new specimen of the giant conodont Promissum pulchrum reveals details of the trunk musculature, feeding apparatus and eyes. High-fidelity resolution of ultrastruc-tural features of the trunk myomeres provides the first conclusive evidence of muscle-fibre organization and orientation in an extinct agnathan. The presence of fibrous extrinsic eye muscles confirms the degree of encephalization of the conodonts and is consistent with a cladistic position crownwards of the… 
Pseudooneotodus: a histological study of an Ordovician to Devonian vertebrate lineage
  • I. Sansom
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1996
TLDR
Detailed histological investigations have shed new light on the nature of Pseudooneotodus Drygant, 1974, showing a differentiation into a lamellar cap, indistinguishable from vertebrate enamel, which is underlain by a spherulitic basal tissue with several characters indicative of dentine.
The conodont controversies.
Conodonts: A Sister Group to Hagfishes?
TLDR
The fossil record of the conodont animal is almost exclusively represented in the fossil record by the phosphatic elements of the feeding apparatus, which was the only mineralized component of the skeleton.
The taphonomy and affinities of the problematic fossil Myoscolex from the Lower Cambrian Emu Bay Shale of South Australia
Most of the specimens of Myoscolex ateles Glaessner, 1979, the most abundant soft-bodied taxon in the Big Gully fauna from the Lower Cambrian Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, preserve only the
Growth and patterning in the conodont skeleton
TLDR
Hard tissue histology is reviewed paying particular attention to the relationships during growth of the component hard tissues comprising conodont elements, and ignoring a priori assumptions of the homologies of these tissues, in order to address the problem of established hypotheses of element growth.
An Early Triassic conodont with periodic growth?
Elements of a new Triassic conodont genus Parapachycladina, from the Lower Triassic Beisi Formation of western Guangxi Province, China, show a characteristic pattern of lamellar edges in the
A 17‐element conodont apparatus from the Soom Shale Lagerstätte (Upper Ordovician), South Africa
Abstract: Natural assemblages of a new conodont taxon, Notiodella keblon, from the Upper Ordovician Soom Shale Lagerstätte of South Africa contain 17 elements. This is the first time that a
Semblant Land Plants from the Middle Ordovician of the Prague Basin Reinterpreted as Animals
Two plant‐like fossil are described from the middle Ordovician of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic. Both fossils bear a strong superficial resemblance to early land plants, but anatomical data
Conodont anatomy, chordate phylogeny and vertebrate classification
TLDR
Fossilized soft-tissue evidence indicates that conodonts possessed eyes, extrinsic eye muscles, a notochord, myomeres, a differentiated tail with fin radiais, possible otic capsules and possible branchial structures, and exhaustive analysis of a more complete character-set strongly supports the hypothesis that conODonts are more derived than hagfish.
Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) scolecodont clusters from the Soom Shale Lagerstätte, South Africa
TLDR
The specimens represent the first described scolecodonts from South Africa and the first apparatus-based taxonomic study of specimens from Gondwana.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 18 REFERENCES
Conodonts with preserved soft tissue from a new Ordovician Konservat-Lagerstätte
A newly-discovered Konservat-Lagerstätte in the Upper Ordovician of South Africa has yielded giant conodont apparatuses, some of which are associated with preserved soft tissues of the conodont
The affinities of conodonts—new evidence from the Carboniferous of Edinburgh, Scotland
Three new specimens which preserve the soft parts of conodonts are described from the Lower Carboniferous of Granton, Edinburgh. The animal was apparently laterally flattened in life and the somites
The conodont animal
A unique specimen of a small, elongate, soft-bodied animal from the Lower Carboniferous of the Edinburgh district, Scotland, is described. The head expands anteriorly into two lobate structures
Presence of the earliest vertebrate hard tissue in conodonts.
TLDR
The identification of vertebrate hard tissues in the oral elements of conodonts extends the earliest occurrence of vertebrates hard tissues back by around 40 million years, from the Middle Ordovician to the Late Cambrian.
The anatomy of conodonts
TLDR
Ten specimens from the Carboniferous Granton shrimp bed of Edinburgh, Scotland, provide the most complete record of conodont anatomy, with evidence of incomplete preservation of ventral soft parts, at least at the anterior end of the specimens.
A Silurian Soft-Bodied Biota
TLDR
A new Silurian (Llandoverian) biota from Wisconsin with a significant soft-bodied and lightly sclerotized component is dominated by arthropods and worms, which adds significantly to the few such exceptionally preserved faunas known from Lower Paleozoic rocks.
Decay of Branchiostoma: implications for soft‐tissue preservation in conodonts and other primitive chordates
TLDR
Decay experiments on the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum (‘amphioxus’) demonstrate that the most decay resistant structures are the notochord sheath and the cartilaginous rods which support the gill bars, and cast light on the interpretation of a number of primitive fossil chordates.
Macromolecular resolution of fossilized muscle tissue from an elopomorph fish
THE Santana Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian/Lower Albian) of Ceara, Brazil, contains many exceptionally preserved fish fossils within carbonate concretions1,2. These concretions formed before
The Apparatus Architecture and Function of Promissum pulchrum Kovacs-Endrody (Conodonta, Upper Ordovician) and the Prioniodontid Plan
TLDR
Recurrent patterns of flattening shown by the assemblages reflect the orientation of the conodont head on the sediment surface prior to decay and collapse of the soft tissues; these patterns are used to model the three-dimensional architecture of the apparatus of Promissum.
The Soom Shale: a unique Ordovician fossil horizon in South Africa
The recent discovery of fossils with preserved soft tissues in the Cedarberg Mountains of the Cape Province has opened a new window on Ordovician life.
...
...