# A generalized technique for symbol manipulation and numerical calculation

@article{Ross1961AGT, title={A generalized technique for symbol manipulation and numerical calculation}, author={Douglas T. Ross}, journal={Commun. ACM}, year={1961}, volume={4}, pages={147-150} }

There is a growing number of systems and proposed systems for arbitrary manipulation of symbolic expressions using computers. The IPL'sys tems of Newell, Shaw, and Simon [1], the L is t System of McCarthy [2] and now the Threaded List modification of Perlis [3], all are based primarily on the fact that symbol manipulation can be carried out by the connection and disconnection of two-sided or branching elements to form lists and list structures (sometimes referred to as tree structures). While…

## 57 Citations

Symbol Manipulation Languages

- Computer ScienceAdv. Comput.
- 1968

It appears likely that symbol manipulation languages will stabilize as their use becomes more widespread, in much the same way as scientific and commercial languages have stabilized.

Recursive data structures

- Computer ScienceInternational Journal of Computer & Information Sciences
- 2004

A pleasing notation by which treelike data structures can be declared and processed is suggested; it gives the axioms which specify their properties, and an efficient implementation method is suggested.

Programming languages for non-numeric processing—2: An introduction to the COGENT programming system

- Computer ScienceACM '65
- 1965

The COGENT (COmpiler and GENeralized Translator) programming system is a compiler whose input language is designed to describe symbolic or linguistic manipulation algorithms, and is also applicable to such problem areas as algebraic manipulation, mechanical theorem-proving, and heuristic programming.

Automatic generation of efficient lexical processors using finite state techniques

- Computer ScienceCACM
- 1968

The practical application of the theory of finite-state automata to automatically generate lexical processors is dealt with in this tutorial article by the use of the AED RWORD system, developed at…

Theoretical foundations for the computer-aided design system

- Computer ScienceAFIPS '63 (Spring)
- 1963

The system must be so designed that the user finds his normal thought processes aided, augmented, and stimulated by the use of the system in such a way that he is able to think almost entirely at the concept level within his own field of interest, while at the same time carrying out data processing activities of extreme complexity.

Compact list representation: definition, garbage collection, and system implementation

- Computer ScienceCACM
- 1969

The Swym system permits a list to be chained, compact, or any combination of the two; the system garbage collector attempts to make all lists compact; it relocates and rearranges all of list storage using temporary storage.

Data Organization and Access Methods

- Computer Science
- 1974

Over the past 15 years there has been a trend in computer applications programming from highly structured programs and loosely structured data toward loosely structured programs and highly structured…

Using a computer to design computer instruction sets

- Computer Science
- 1968

GIS (Generalized Instruction Set) is a model of the concept instruction set, a heuristic program, written in ISDS, that determines its own strategy for designing an optimal instruction set for a given programming environment.

Lettes to the editor: Proprietary packages: a point of view

- Computer ScienceCACM
- 1968

I am familiar with many of the problems and difficulties of running a large computer conference. The people who organized and ran IFIP 68 worked very hard for no tangible return and with very little…

Simulation of one abstract computing machine by another

- Computer ScienceCACM
- 1968

I am familiar with many of the problems and difficulties of running a large computer conference. The people who organized and ran IFIP 68 worked very hard for no tangible return and with very little…

## References

SHOWING 1-6 OF 6 REFERENCES

Recursive functions of symbolic expressions and their computation by machine, Part I

- Computer ScienceCommun. ACM
- 1960

A programming system called LISP (for LISt Processor) has been developed for the IBM 704 computer by the Artificial Intelligence group at M.I.T. The system was designed to facilitate experiments with…

Symbol manipulation by threaded lists

- Computer ScienceCommun. ACM
- 1960

Lisp is that the extraction of subexpressions is a fairly involved, rather than an elementary, operation, and if the functionsre to be represented by computer routines, Lisp is essen:ally faster.

Toward Mechanical Mathematics

- Computer ScienceIBM J. Res. Dev.
- 1960

Results are reported here of a rather successful attempt at proving all theorems, totalling near 400, of Principia Mathematica which are strictly in the realm of logic, viz., the restricted predicate…

An introduction to information processing language V

- Computer ScienceCommun. ACM
- 1960

This paper is an informal introduction to Language V (IPL-V), a symbol and list-struc language present ly implemented on the IBM and contains a discussion of the hmguage, a series of Information Processes developed and of the basic concepts in [PL-V.

Recursive funct ions of symbolic expressions and the i r computa t ion by machine , Pa r t 1

- 1960

Symbol man ipu la t ion by th readed lists

- Comm . ACM
- 1960