A general reinforcement learning algorithm that masters chess, shogi, and Go through self-play

@article{Silver2018AGR,
  title={A general reinforcement learning algorithm that masters chess, shogi, and Go through self-play},
  author={David Silver and Thomas Hubert and Julian Schrittwieser and Ioannis Antonoglou and Matthew Lai and Arthur Guez and Marc Lanctot and L. Sifre and Dharshan Kumaran and Thore Graepel and Timothy P. Lillicrap and Karen Simonyan and Demis Hassabis},
  journal={Science},
  year={2018},
  volume={362},
  pages={1140 - 1144}
}
The game of chess is the longest-studied domain in the history of artificial intelligence. [] Key Result Starting from random play and given no domain knowledge except the game rules, AlphaZero convincingly defeated a world champion program in the games of chess and shogi (Japanese chess), as well as Go.

Impartial Games: A Challenge for Reinforcement Learning

TLDR
The first concrete example of a game - namely the (children) game of nim - and other impartial games that seem to be a stumbling block for AlphaZero and similar reinforcement learning algorithms are presented, and more powerful bottlenecks are provided than previously suggested.

Mastering board games

TLDR
Silver et al. (6) show that a generalization of this approach is effective across a variety of games, and their Alpha-Zero system learned to play three challenging games at the highest levels of play seen.

Mastering Atari, Go, Chess and Shogi by Planning with a Learned Model

TLDR
The MuZero algorithm is presented, which, by combining a tree-based search with a learned model, achieves superhuman performance in a range of challenging and visually complex domains, without any knowledge of their underlying dynamics.

Assessing Popular Chess Variants Using Deep Reinforcement Learning

TLDR
It is shown that it is possible to train several chess variants with the same reinforcement learning setup and produced the very first multi-variant chess engine that utilizes Monte Carlo tree search, which has become the worlds strongest engine in the game of Horde and second strongest behind it’s sibling CrazyAra in Crazyhouse.

Learning to Play: Reinforcement Learning and Games

TLDR
It is shown that the methods generalize to three games, hinting at artificial general intelligence, and an argument can be made that in doing so the authors failed the Turing test, since no human can play at this level.

A Survey of Planning and Learning in Games

TLDR
This paper presents a survey of the multiple methodologies proposed to integrate planning and learning in the context of games, both in terms of their theoretical foundations and applications and also presents learning and planning techniques commonly used in games.

Learning to Play the Chess Variant Crazyhouse Above World Champion Level With Deep Neural Networks and Human Data

TLDR
Improvements include modifications in the neural network design and training configuration, the introduction of a data normalization step and a more sample efficient Monte-Carlo tree search which has a lower chance to blunder.

Learning self-play agents for combinatorial optimization problems

TLDR
This paper explores neural Monte Carlo Tree Search (neural MCTS), an RL algorithm that has been applied successfully by DeepMind to play Go and Chess at a superhuman level, and proposes the Zermelo Gamification to transform specific combinatorial optimization problems into Zermello games whose winning strategies correspond to the solutions of the original optimization problems.

Learning Self-Game-Play Agents for Combinatorial Optimization Problems

TLDR
The Zermelo Gamification (ZG) is proposed, following the idea of Hintikka's Game-Theoretical Semantics, to transform specific combinatorial optimization problems intoZermelo games whose winning strategies correspond to the solutions of the original optimization problem.
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