A general derivation and quantification of the third law of thermodynamics

@article{Masanes2017AGD,
  title={A general derivation and quantification of the third law of thermodynamics},
  author={Lluis Masanes and Jonathan Oppenheim},
  journal={Nature Communications},
  year={2017},
  volume={8}
}
The most accepted version of the third law of thermodynamics, the unattainability principle, states that any process cannot reach absolute zero temperature in a finite number of steps and within a finite time. Here, we provide a derivation of the principle that applies to arbitrary cooling processes, even those exploiting the laws of quantum mechanics or involving an infinite-dimensional reservoir. We quantify the resources needed to cool a system to any temperature, and translate these… 
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