A gene regulatory network orchestrates neural crest formation

  title={A gene regulatory network orchestrates neural crest formation},
  author={Tatjana Sauka-Spengler and Marianne Bronner‐Fraser},
  journal={Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology},
The neural crest is a multipotent, migratory cell population that is unique to vertebrate embryos and gives rise to many derivatives, ranging from the peripheral nervous system to the craniofacial skeleton and pigment cells. A multimodule gene regulatory network mediates the complex process of neural crest formation, which involves the early induction and maintenance of the precursor pool, emigration of the neural crest progenitors from the neural tube via an epithelial to mesenchymal… 

Neural Crest Formation and Diversification

This chapter is an overview of the molecular mechanisms underlying neural crest induction, specification, and migration.

Establishing neural crest identity: a gene regulatory recipe

The current status of the neural crest gene regulatory network is reviewed, emphasizing the connections between transcription factors, signalling molecules and epigenetic modifiers.

Development and evolution of the neural crest: an overview.

Evolution of the neural crest viewed from a gene regulatory perspective

Analyzing neural crest formation from a gene regulatory viewpoint provides insights into both the developmental mechanisms and evolutionary origins of this vertebrate‐specific cell type.

Epigenetic regulation in neural crest development.

Network architecture and regulatory logic in neural crest development

This review employs this genetic program as a stepping‐stone to explore the architecture and the regulatory principles of developmental GRNs and discusses how modern genomic approaches can further expand the understanding of genetic networks in this system and others.

Neural crest specification: tissues, signals, and transcription factors

The mechanisms required for neural crest formation in various vertebrate species are discussed, focusing on the importance of signaling factors from adjacent tissues and conserved gene regulatory interactions, which are required for induction and specification of the ectodermal tissue that will become neural crest.

Assembling neural crest regulatory circuits into a gene regulatory network.

This work presents an overview of the GRN that orchestrates the formation of cranial neural crest cells and includes information about direct regulatory interactions obtained from the cis-regulatory analyses performed to date, which increases the resolution of the architectural circuitry within the network.



Role of morphogens in neural crest cell determination.

A comparison of studies performed in several different vertebrates emphasizes the requirement for coordination between multiple signaling pathways in the induction and migration of neural crest cells in the developing embryo.

Neural crest stem and progenitor cells.

Recent advances in characterizing the properties of neural crest cells are discussed, together with their potential for tissue-specific repair.

Xenopus Id3 is required downstream of Myc for the formation of multipotent neural crest progenitor cells

It is shown that the small HLH protein Id3 is a Myc target that plays an essential role in the formation and maintenance of neural crest stem cells, and a morpholino-mediated `knockdown' of Id3 protein results in embryos that lack neural crest.

Gene-regulatory interactions in neural crest evolution and development.

A Rap GTPase interactor, RADIL, mediates migration of neural crest precursors.

The identification of RADIL as a regulator of NC migration defines a role for the Rap pathway in this process and shows that it is required for cell adhesion and migration.

Specification of the neural crest occurs during gastrulation and requires Pax7

It is reported that neural crest induction is underway during gastrulation and well before proper neural plate appearance, and that Pax7 has a crucial function during neural crest development.

Bimodal functions of Notch-mediated signaling are involved in neural crest formation during avian ectoderm development.

It is shown that epidermally expressed Delta1, which encodes a Notch ligand, is required for the activation and/or maintenance of Bmp4 expression in this tissue, and is thus indirectly required for neural crest induction by BMP4 at the epidermis-neural plate boundary.

Regulative capacity of the cranial neural tube to form neural crest.

Regulation following ablation suggests that neural tube cells normally destined to form CNS derivatives can adjust their prospective fates to form PNS and other neural crest derivatives until 4.5-6 hours after the time of normal onset of emigration from the neural tube.