A gapless charge mode induced by the boundary states in the half-filled Hubbard open chain

@article{Deguchi1998AGC,
  title={A gapless charge mode induced by the boundary states in the half-filled Hubbard open chain},
  author={Tetsuo Deguchi and Rui-Hong Yue and Koichi Kusakabe},
  journal={Journal of Physics A},
  year={1998},
  volume={31},
  pages={7315-7330}
}
We discuss the ground state and some excited states of the half-filled Hubbard model defined on an open chain with L sites, where only one of the boundary sites has a different value of chemical potential. We consider the case when the boundary site has a negative chemical potential -p and the Hubbard coupling U is positive. By an analytic method we show that when p is larger than the transfer integral some of the ground-state solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations become complex-valued. It… 
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