A framework for the integrated analysis of the magnitude, selectivity, and biotic effects of extinction and origination

  title={A framework for the integrated analysis of the magnitude, selectivity, and biotic effects of extinction and origination},
  author={Andrew M. Bush and Steve C. Wang and Jonathan L. Payne and Noel A. Heim},
  pages={1 - 22}
Abstract. The taxonomic and ecologic composition of Earth's biota has shifted dramatically through geologic time, with some clades going extinct while others diversified. Here, we derive a metric that quantifies the change in biotic composition due to extinction or origination and show that it equals the product of extinction/origination magnitude and selectivity (variation in magnitude among groups). We also define metrics that describe the extent to which a recovery (1) reinforced or reversed… 

A global ecological signal of extinction risk in terrestrial vertebrates

It is found that cave-dwelling amphibians, arboreal quadrupedal mammals, aerial and scavenging birds, and pedal (i.e., walking) squamates are all disproportionately threatened with extinction.

Does functional redundancy determine the ecological severity of a mass extinction event?

Many authors have noted the apparent ‘decoupling’ of the taxonomic and ecological severity of mass extinction events, with no widely accepted mechanistic explanation for this pattern having been

Nonmarine Mass Extinctions

  • S. Lucas
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Paleontological Research
  • 2021
Abstract. A critical review of putative nonmarine mass extinctions associated with the so-called “Big 5 mass extinctions” of marine invertebrates (Late Ordovician, Late Devonian, end Permian, end

Global warming generates predictable extinctions of warm‐ and cold‐water marine benthic invertebrates via thermal habitat loss

Anthropogenic global warming is redistributing marine life and may threaten tropical benthic invertebrates with several potential extinction mechanisms. The net impact of climate change on

Victims of ancient hyperthermal events herald the fates of marine clades and traits under global warming

Focusing on the fossil record of the last 300 million years, clades and traits of marine ectotherms are identified that were more prone to extinction under the onset of six hyperthermal events than during other times: geologically rapid episodes of global warming.

Is there more than one species in the genusSpirula(Cephalopoda: Decabrachia): evidence for an Atlantic–Pacific divide

The data imply that Atlantic and Indo-Pacific specimens form two distinct morphological clusters, potentially representing two pseudocryptic species or two populations undergoing divergence (i.e. in the process of speciation).

using deep

It is demonstrated deep learning can quantify the magnetic Hamiltonian from magnetic domain images and is anticipated that the deep learning techniques make a bridge to connect the experimental and theoretical approaches not only in magnetism but also throughout any scientific research.

Mass extinctions alter extinction and origination dynamics with respect to body size

Not only do mass extinction events shift the marine biosphere into a new macroevolutionary regime, the dynamics of recovery from mass extinction also appear to play an underappreciated role in shaping the biosphere in their aftermath.



Extinction intensity, selectivity and their combined macroevolutionary influence in the fossil record

This work proposes the geometric mean of extinction intensity and selectivity as a metric for the influence of extinction events and provides an avenue for quantifying the risk posed by the emerging biodiversity crisis that goes beyond a simple projection of taxonomic losses.

Dynamics of origination and extinction in the marine fossil record

  • J. Alroy
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
The discipline-wide effort to database the fossil record at the occurrence level has made it possible to estimate marine invertebrate extinction and origination rates with much greater accuracy. The

Contrasting the ecological and taxonomic consequences of extinction

This study tests whether ecological changes increase correspondingly with taxonomic changes during the Late Ordovician M4/M5 extinction, theOrdovician/Silurian mass extinction, and the Late Devonian mass extinction and suggests that the ecological consequences of extinction need to be considered in addition to the taxonomic effects of extinction.

Decoupling of taxonomic and ecologic severity of Phanerozoic marine mass extinctions

There have been five major mass extinctions among the marine biota during the ∼0.6 b.y. history of metazoan life on Earth. These mass extinctions have been ranked from the largest to the smallest by

Taxonomic selectivity and continuous variation in mass and background extinctions of marine taxa

  • Michael L. McKinney
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1987
It is shown that except for the late Permian event, mass-extinction rates for each taxon were often not higher than many of their 'normal' background rates evincing continuous variation between them.

Evidence for extinction selectivity throughout the marine invertebrate fossil record

A method for detecting random extinction is used to demonstrate that during both background and mass extinction times, extinction of marine invertebrate genera has been nonrandom with respect to species richness categories of genera.

The effect of geographic range on extinction risk during background and mass extinction

  • J. PayneS. Finnegan
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2007
This work evaluated the selectivity of genus survivorship with respect to geographic range by using a global database of fossil benthic marine invertebrates spanning the Cambrian through the Neogene periods, showing that wide geographic range has been significantly and positively associated with survivorship for the great majority of Phanerozoic time.

Phylogenetic Clustering of Origination and Extinction across the Late Ordovician Mass Extinction

Testing whether there was phylogenetic selectivity in extinction and origination using brachiopod genera from the Middle Ordovician through the Devonian finds that both extinctions and originations shift from taxonomically random or weakly clustered within families in theOrdovician to strongly clustered in the Silurian and Devonian.

Bivalve network reveals latitudinal selectivity gradient at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

A latitudinal selectivity gradient for geographic range in the K-Pg was found, such that higher latitude BUs had lower extinction than expected given the geographic ranges of the genera, implying that high latitude B Units were more resistant to extinction.

Biogeographic and bathymetric determinants of brachiopod extinction and survival during the Late Ordovician mass extinction

It is argued that the LOME, long regarded as non-selective, is highly selective along biogeographic and bathymetric axes that are not closely correlated with taxonomic identity.