A framework for analyzing the proximate determinants of fertility

  title={A framework for analyzing the proximate determinants of fertility},
  author={John Bongaarts},
  journal={Population and Development Review},
  • J. Bongaarts
  • Published 1 March 1978
  • Economics, Sociology
  • Population and Development Review
Studies of the causes of fertility levels and their changes often seek to measure directly the impact of socioeconomic factors on fertility. Such procedures have a broad appeal to policymakers, offering as they do to pinpoint mechanisms susceptible to manipulation by official policy. Despite this appeal, such approaches are considerably more problematical in their application. Not infrequently, relationships are found to differ not only in magnitude but even in direction in different settings… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Fertility exposure analysis: A new method for assessing the contribution of proximate determinants to fertility differentials.
This paper proposes an approach which uses individual-level data and thus permits regression analyses as well as analyses for sub-groups, and treats both unconditional (or additive) and conditional analyses.
Modeling the fertility impact of the proximate determinants: Time for a tune-up
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)1. IntroductionThe proximate determinants (PD) of fertility are the biological and behavioral factors through which the background determinants (social,
An Analysis of Reproductive Behavior in Brazil
Brazils population has undergone a major fertility decline in the past 20 years. Changing fertility patterns are analyzed in this report with data from a 1986 nationwide maternity-child health and
Factors affecting fertility control in India: a cross-sectional study.
The "synthesis model" of the demographic transition characterizes the transition as a shift from "natural fertility" to deliberately controlled fertility as well as a change from high to low levels
The proximate determinants of exceptionally high fertility.
A not uncommon but simplistic view of changing reproductive behavior during the transition from high to low fertility holds that a rise in the practice of contraception is virtually the only
There has been a universal decrease in the duration of breast-feeding and postpartum abstinence, which has contributed to stalling and increasing fertility rates in countries of Central Africa and in other regions of the world, such as Southern Africa, Latin America & Caribbean and Asia.
Determinants of fertility control in Korea.
  • S. Chung
  • Economics
    Korea journal of population and development
  • 1990
The analysis shows that motivation for fertility control is an important factor in determining use of fertility control, and there are only small differentials in fertility control by socioeconomic factors.
Desired fertility and the impact of population policies
Ninety percent of the differences across countries in total fertility rates are accounted for solely by differences in women's reported desired fertility. Using desired fertility constructed from
Modelling the proximate determinants of fertility for Brazil: the advent of competing preferences
More than half of the world’s population lives in a country where fertility is below replacement level (MYRSKYLA; KOHLER; BILLARI, 2009). In Brazil, the total fertility rate (TFR) went down from 4.26


The Effects of Nutrition and Health on Fertility: Hypotheses, Evidence, and Interventions.
This model based on the assumption that the peasant farmer is rational has policy implications which differ radically from the policy implications flowing from the backward peasant model.
Human Fertility: the basic components
In this innovative and comprehensive work, expanded by one-third for the English-language edition, Henri Leridon integrates biology and demography to investigate human fertility, both natural and
Prospective study of birth interval dynamics in rural Bangladesh.
Abstract A group of 209 married, fecund women in rural Bangladesh were studied prospectively for 24 months from 1969 to 1971 to define some of the biological and sociological factors relating to
A case study of birth interval dynamics
Means and variances of post-partum amenorrhoea, menstruating intervals, and time added by pregnancy wastage are estimated for two broad age classes and the results related to corresponding statistics for total birth ...
Additional births averted when abortion is added to contraception.
  • R. Potter
  • Economics
    Studies in family planning
  • 1972
The writer gratefully acknowledges support received from the Ford Foundation and the Population Council and the programming assistance of Mrs. C. Keiper.
Menstrual Cycles: Fatness as a Determinant of Minimum Weight for Height Necessary for Their Maintenance or Onset
The data suggest that a minimum level of stored, easily mobilized energy is necessary for ovulation and menstrual cycles in the human female.
Induced abortion and contraceptive practice: an experience in Taiwan.
Is the fertility reducing effect of lactation really substantial?," paper presented at the Seminar on Natural Fertility organized by the IUSSP and INED, Paris
  • 1977
United Nations Population Division, "Selected world demographic indicators by countries 1950-2000," Working Paper, no
  • 55, ST/STAT/SER.R (1975); age-specific fertility rates obtained from a computer tape provided by the UN Population Division; and Demographic Yearbook
  • 1973
" Some data on natural fertility , " Eugenics Quarterly