A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places.

@article{Cialdini1990AFT,
  title={A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places.},
  author={Robert B. Cialdini and Raymond R. Reno and Carl A. Kallgren},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
  year={1990},
  volume={58},
  pages={1015-1026}
}
Past research has generated mixed support among social scientists for the utility of social norms in accounting for human behavior. We argue that norms do have a substantial impact on human action; however, the impact can only be properly recognized when researchers (a) separate 2 types of norms that at times act antagonistically in a situation—injunctive norms (what most others approve or disapprove) and descriptive norms (what most others do)—and (b) focus Ss' attention principally on the… 

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