African non-human primates were surveyed seroepidemiologically for natural infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (ATLV/HTLV-I) or its closely related virus(es). Materials from three genera (Cercopithecus, Papio, and Theropithecus), four species (grivet monkey, Anubis baboon, Hamadryas baboon, and gelada), totalling 983 animals under natural conditions, were obtained in a field study in Ethiopia. Virus infection was determined by the indirect immunofluorescence test using HTLV-I specific antigens. Animals seropositive for HTLV-I were found among grivet monkeys and Anubis baboons including the hybrid offspring between Anubis and Hamadryas baboons but not pure-Hamadryas baboons and geladas. From these results, the HTLV-I family was proved to be widespread on the African continent and was regarded as a common retrovirus among catarrhines.