A eudicot from the Early Cretaceous of China

  title={A eudicot from the Early Cretaceous of China},
  author={Ge Sun and David L. Dilcher and Hongshan Wang and Zhiduan Chen},
The current molecular systematics of angiosperms recognizes the basal angiosperms and five major angiosperm lineages: the Chloranthaceae, the magnoliids, the monocots, Ceratophyllum and the eudicots, which consist of the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. The eudicots form the majority of the angiosperms in the world today. The flowering plants are of exceptional evolutionary interest because of their diversity of over 250,000 species and their abundance as the dominant vegetation in most… 

A eudicot leaf from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian, Araripe Basin) Crato Konservat-Lagerstätte.

The combination of characters preserved in the fossil supports the interpretation that B. pinnatissecta was an herbaceous eudicot similar to some members of Ranunculales and distinguished from other lobate Aptian angiosperms by leaf shape, presence of multiple orders of reticulate venation, and the absence of glandular teeth.

Accelerated evolution of early angiosperms: Evidence from ranunculalean phylogeny by integrating living and fossil data

A hypothesis that the basal eudicots might have experienced an accelerated evolution and diversification during the latest Barremian and earliest Aptian, leading to the stem groups of at least six extant families or lineages, 10–15 Myr earlier than currently documented is suggested.

Recognising angiosperm clades in the Early Cretaceous fossil record

  • J. Doyle
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2015
Associated flowers indicate that palmately lobed ‘platanoids’ and Sapindopsis are both stem relatives of Platanus, while Nelumbites was related to Nelumbo (also Proteales) and Spanomera to Buxaceae.

The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

It is found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108–90 Ma, and diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

Potomacapnos apeleutheron gen. et sp. nov., a new Early Cretaceous angiosperm from the Potomac Group and its implications for the evolution of eudicot leaf architecture.

  • N. JudL. Hickey
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    American journal of botany
  • 2013
These are the oldest eudicot megafossils from North America, and they show complex leaf architecture reflecting developmental pathways unique to extant eudicots.

Sensitive phylogenetics of Clematis and its position in Ranunculaceae

The results provide a phylogenetic background for a natural section-level classification of Clematis and strongly imply that Anemone s.l. is a grade with respect to the Anemoclema + Clematis clade.

Evolution of Angiosperm Pollen: 4. Basal Eudicots1

Tests of correlated evolution suggest that the herbaceous growth form is significantly associated with spheroidal pollen shape and the arborescent growth form with oblate pollen shape, however, no significant correlations were found between anemophily and aperture number.

Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times

The molecular clock estimates of Mesangiospermae diversification during the late to middle Jurassic correspond well to the origins of some insects, which may have been a factor facilitating early angiosperm radiation.

First evidence of ranunculids in Early Cretaceous tropics

Two fossil-species of eudicots belonging to a new extinct genus Santaniella gen. nov are described from this region of northern Gondwanan origin, and their first unequivocal occurrence in a low-latitude area supports further the hypothesis of a widespread radiation of the earliest diverging eudicot lineage by this early age.



The earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes

This study demonstrates that Amboreella, Nymphaeales and Illiciales-Trimeniaceae-Austrobaileya represent the first stage of angiosperm evolution, with Amborella being sister to all other angiosperms, and shows that Gnetales are related to the conifers and are not sister to the angios perms, thus refuting the Anthophyte Hypothesis.

Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree

Angiosperm divergence times are estimated using non–parametric rate smoothing and a three–gene dataset covering ca.

Dating phylogenetically basal eudicots using rbcL sequences and multiple fossil reference points.

A molecular dating of the phylogenetically basal eudicots has been performed using several fossils as minimum age constraints, and the results suggest a rapid diversification during the late Early Cretaceous, with all the lineages of basal Eudicots emerging during the latest part of the EarlyCretaceous.

Sinocarpus decussatus gen. et sp. nov., a new angiosperm with basally syncarpous fruits from the Yixian Formation of Northeast China

The character combination of Sinocarpus indicates a systematic position among the basal grade of eudicot or the basal core eudicots, and particularly shows similarities to extant Ranunculaceae, Buxaceae, and Myrothamnaceae, but based on the available data the fossil cannot unambiguously be placed in any modern family.

Cretaceous age for the feathered dinosaurs of Liaoning, China

The results of this dating study indicate that the lower Yixian fossil horizons are not Jurassic but rather are at least 20 Myr younger, placing them within middle Early Cretaceous time.

In search of the first flower: A jurassic angiosperm, archaefructus, from northeast china

Angiosperm fruiting axes discovered from the Upper Jurassic of China have primitive characters and characters not considered primitive, and the leaf-like structures subtending each axis define them as flowers.

An early infructescence Hyrcantha decussata (comb. nov.) from the Yixian Formation in northeastern China

This report is a detailed account of this early flowering plant and recognizes earlier reports of similar fossils from Russia and China, and presents entire plants, including roots, stems, and branches terminating in fruits.

Using plastid genome-scale data to resolve enigmatic relationships among basal angiosperms

Parsimony analyses of combined and partitioned data sets varied in the placement of several taxa, particularly Ceratophyllum, whereas maximum-likelihood (ML) trees were more topologically stable, and ML bootstrap and Bayesian support values for these relationships were generally high, although approximately unbiased topology tests could not reject several alternative topologies.


Results indicate that widely divergent age estimates can result from the different methods, different sources of data, and the inclusion of temporal constraints to topologies, and agree with the hypothesis that the angiosperms may be somewhat older than the fossil record indicates.

The age and diversification of the angiosperms re-revisited.

These analyses provide a new comprehensive source of reference dates for major angiosperm clades that are generally younger than other recent molecular estimates and very close to dates inferred from the fossil record.