A dying universe: the long-term fate and evolutionof astrophysical objects

  title={A dying universe: the long-term fate and evolutionof astrophysical objects},
  author={Fred C. Adams and Gregory P. Laughlin},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
This paper outlines astrophysical issues related to the long-term fate of the universe. The authors consider the evolution of planets, stars, stellar populations, galaxies, and the universe itself over time scales that greatly exceed the current age of the universe. Their discussion starts with new stellar evolution calculations which follow the future evolution of the low-mass (M-type) stars that dominate the stellar mass function. They derive scaling relations that describe how the range of… 

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