A double‐blind controlled study of chlormethiazole and triazolam as hypnotics in the elderly

  title={A double‐blind controlled study of chlormethiazole and triazolam as hypnotics in the elderly},
  author={Antony Bayer and Ehrentraud Bayer and M. S. John Pathy and M. J. Stoker},
  journal={Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica},
This study compared the hypnotic efficacy and the psychometric effects of treatment with either chlormethiazole or triazolam for 9 weeks in elderly patients with sleep disturbance. Chlormethiazole and triazolam were found to be similarly effective in short‐term use. However, evidence of sustained hypnotic efficacy throughout the 9 weeks of treatment was obtained for chlormethiazole but not for triazolam. There were daytime withdrawal effects with triazolam, but none with chlormethiazole. 

Daytime consumption of triazolam

Tolerance to the hypnotic and anxiolytic effects of the drug developed, as shown by a significant escalation of both the bedtime and daytime doses of triazolam.

The effects of clomethiazole on polysomnographically recorded sleep in healthy subjects

The current study confirms the indication in the scientific literature with regard to hypnotic and REM–suppressive effects of clomethiazole, as well as a rebound phenomenon following discontinuation of the medication.

Hypnotics and sedatives

Appropriately treating insomnia with triazolam.

  • V. L. Martin
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of psychoactive drugs
  • 1990
Triazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine, closely approaches the characteristics of an ideal hypnotic: pharmacological activity at the level of the receptors, moderate absorption, short-acting, and rapid elimination.

Effects of chlormethiazole on psychological performance under conditions of constant plasma concentrations

The results suggest that acute tolerance to the CNS effects of chlormethiazole does not occur over this time scale, but is found for peripheral effects such as eye and nose symptoms.

Benzodiazepine hypnotics and insomnia.

In summary, it is proposed that the more frequent or severe side effects associated with the newer triazolo-benzodiazepines are related to an interaction of several factors, including rapid

The Triazolam Experience in 1979 in The Netherlands, a Problem of Signal Generation and Verification

Triazolam (Halcion) was marketed as a hypnotic in the Netherlands early in 1978. There were tablets of three different strengths: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg. The product information recommended a dose of

Sedative hypnotics in older people with insomnia: meta-analysis of risks and benefits

Improvements in sleep with sedative use are statistically significant, but the magnitude of effect is small, and the increased risk of adverse events is statistically significant and potentially clinically relevant in older people at risk of falls and cognitive impairment.

Hypnotic drugs, psychomotor performance and ageing

  • K. Morgan
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of sleep research
  • 1994
Issues of subject selection, experimental design, testing strategies, and data analysis need to be addressed if the risks and benefits of hypnotic drug use in later life are to be more clearly understood.



Improved hypnotic treatment using chlormethiazole and temazepam.

The effects of a single 384 mg oral dose of chlormethiazole were compared with those of 20 mg of temazepam and placebo in healthy old and young women (mean ages 72.9 and 24.7 years respectively).

A 1,4-benzodiazepine, temazepam (K 3917), its effect on some psychological parameters of sleep and behaviour.

Temazepam showed very much the same effects as they are known from conventional 1,4-benzodiazepines except for its lack of impairment in early morning behavior following night time medication.

Repeated dose comparison of nomifensine, imipramine and placebo on subjective assessments of sleep and objective measures of psychomotor performance.

Although both nomifensine and imipramine disturbed the quality of sleep, only imipramsine produced a hangover and there was a significant increase in critical flicker fusion with nomifenine.

Early morning insomnia with rapidly eliminated benzodiazepines.

Early morning insomnia, a significant increase in wakefulness during the final hours of drug nights, occurred after 1 or 2 weeks of nightly administration of benzodiazepine hypnotics with short

Toxicity of nitrazepam in the elderly: a report from the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program.

It is suggested that there is little reason to exceed 5mg doses of nitrazepam for most patients, particularly those who are elderly, but the elderly are readily susceptible to excessive CNS depression at high doses.

Psychotropic drug use in an ambulatory elderly population.

Nearly 90% of participants who reported the daily use of a hypnotic agent state they had been using the product on a daily basis for longer than 1 year, and barbiturates were contained in nearly one fourth of minor tranquilizers used by these elderly subjects.

Toxicity of high‐dose flurazepam in the elderly

Low doses of flurazepam appear to be safe for elderly individuals, but they are susceptible to unwanted central nervous system depression at high doses, and unwanted effects of high‐dose flurzepam were observed much more commonly in the elderly.

Reduced clearance of triazolam in old age: relation to antipyrine oxidizing capacity.

Values of half-life and clearance of antipyrine, a low-extraction hepatically oxidized compound, were poorly correlated with those of triazolam, suggesting different mechanisms controlling age-related changes in clearance of these two hepatically oxidation drugs.

Drugs and insomnia

She went on to say that large scale development of this priceless voluntary effort is surely the light at the end of the tunnel; and the devotion and dedication of the WRVS must be encouraged by every conceivable method.

Anxiety caused by a short-life hypnotic

reports four deaths in 30 years attributed to milk-related infection as against a yearly toll of 150 000 deaths from coronary disease in England and Wales. The evidence which began to accumulate in