A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean

@article{Saji1999ADM,
  title={A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean},
  author={N. H. Saji and B. N. Goswami and Puthenveettil Narayana Menon Vinayachandran and Toshio Yamagata},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1999},
  volume={401},
  pages={360-363}
}
For the tropical Pacific and Atlantic oceans, internal modes of variability that lead to climatic oscillations have been recognized, but in the Indian Ocean region a similar ocean–atmosphere interaction causing interannual climate variability has not yet been found. Here we report an analysis of observational data over the past 40 years, showing a dipole mode in the Indian Ocean: a pattern of internal variability with anomalously low sea surface temperatures off Sumatra and high sea surface… 
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