A dimension reduction framework for understanding cortical maps

  title={A dimension reduction framework for understanding cortical maps},
  author={Richard Durbin and Graeme J. Mitchison},
WE argue that cortical maps, such as those for ocular dominance, orientation and retinotopic position in primary visual cortex1, can be understood in terms of dimension-reducing mappings from many-dimensional parameter spaces to the surface of the cortex. The goal of these mappings is to preserve as far as possible neighbourhood relations in parameter space so that local computations in parameter space can be performed locally in the cortex. We have found that, in a simple case2, certain self… 
How many maps are there in visual cortex?
This paper uses a dimension reduction model to generate maps of simple, many- dimensional feature spaces onto a model two-dimensional cortex, and suggests that geometrical factors do not sharply limit the ability of the cortex to represent combinations of parameters in spatially superimposed maps of similar periodicity.
The Coordinated Mapping of Visual Space and Response Features in Visual Cortex
In primary visual cortex of ferret, the relationships between the maps of visual space and response features are predicted by a "dimension-reduction" model, and a clear influence of the visual map on each feature map is demonstrated.
Design Principles of Columnar Organization in Visual Cortex
The most salient features of these maps can be understood from a few basic design principles: local correlation, modularity, isotropy, and homogeneity, which are common properties of the models and of biological maps.
Pinwheel crystallization in a dimension reduction model of visual cortical development
The primary visual cortex (V1) of higher mammals con-tains a topographic representation of visual space inwhich neighborhood-preserving maps of several variablesdescribing visual features such as
Anisotropic Correlation Properties in the Spatial Structure of Cortical Orientation Maps
Information-theoretic insights are provided about spatial arrangements of simple cell receptive fields in several biologically plausible orientation maps, by studying both autocorrelation and directional mutual information of cortical activity.
Alteration of Visual Input Results in a Coordinated Reorganization of Multiple Visual Cortex Maps
The number of feature maps in a cortical area influences the relationships between them, and inputs to the cortex have a significant role in generating these relationships.
Pattern selection in the visual cortex
The orientation map in the primary visual cortex is an important model system for studying cortical development. By quantifying large sets of functional brain imaging data we find that the statistics
Topological analysis of point singularities in stimulus preference maps of the prim ary visual cortex
  • Shigeru Tanaka
  • Mathematics
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1995
A large population of neurons in the primary visual cortex optimally respond to the orientation and phase of a grating stimulus in luminance. I demonstrate here that the topology of the stimulus
Topographical maps of orientation specificity
  • L. Costa
  • Mathematics, Computer Science
    Biological Cybernetics
  • 2004
A spatially congruent framework for orientation encoding in the primate striate visual cortex is proposed and discussed, which provides a reasonable explanation for the centric organization of the orientation specificity and accounts for a series of experimentally verified intriguing phenomena.
The influence of restricted orientation rearing on map structure in primary visual cortex
A computational model of map formation based on dimension-reduction principles is used to predict the effect on map relationships of presenting only a single orientation to one eye and the orthogonal orientation to the other eye and provides a way to further test the adequacy of dimension reduction principles for explaining map structure under perturbed as well as normal rearing conditions.


From basic network principles to neural architecture: emergence of orientation-selective cells.
  • R. Linsker
  • Computer Science, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1986
It is shown that orientation-selective cells, similar to the "simple" cortical cells of Hubel and Wiesel, emerge in a "modular self-adaptive network" containing several layers of cells with parallel feedforward connections whose strengths develop according to a Hebb-type correlation-rewarding rule.
Inhibition contributes to orientation selectivity in visual cortex of cat
Using cross-correlation analysis of the activities of two neurons recorded simultaneously, it is found that inhibitory interactions exist between cells with somewhat different, but not orthogonal, orientation preferences, which suggests that intracortical horizontal inhibition operates between 'orientation columns' to sharpen the orientation tuning of cortical neurons.
Modality and topographic properties of single neurons of cat's somatic sensory cortex.
Observations upon the modality and topographical attributes of single neurons of the first somatic sensory area of the cat’s cerebral cortex, the analogue of the cortex of the postcentral gyrus in the primate brain, support an hypothesis of the functional organization of this cortical area.
Ocular dominance column development: analysis and simulation.
A mathematical model of several biological mechanisms that can account for ocular dominance segregation and the resulting patch width is presented and can be used to predict the results of proposed experiments and to discriminate among various mechanisms of plasticity.
Ordered arrangement of orientation columns in monkeys lacking visual experience
The main object of this study was to see whether ordered sequences of orientation columns are present in very young visually naive monkeys, whose eyes had been closed near the time of birth, and to be sure that the abnormalities in the deprived animals represented a deterioration of connections.
Binocular impulse blockade prevents the formation of ocular dominance columns in cat visual cortex
  • M. Stryker, W. Harris
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1986
Assays indicated that retinal blockade completely blocked the formation of ocular dominance columns, unlike any of the control procedures, suggesting that the spontaneous maintained discharge of retinal ganglion cells may have an important role in the normal development of binocular connections in the visual cortex.
Plasticity of ocular dominance columns in monkey striate cortex.
  • D. Hubel, T. Wiesel, S. Levay
  • Biology, Medicine
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1977
Preliminary experiments suggest that the layer IVC columns in juvenile macaque monkeys are not fully developed until some weeks after birth, which explains the critical period for deprivation effects in the layerIV columns.
Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex
The striate cortex was studied in lightly anaesthetized macaque and spider monkeys by recording extracellularly from single units and stimulating the retinas with spots or patterns of light, with response properties very similar to those previously described in the cat.
Voltage-sensitive dyes reveal a modular organization in monkey striate cortex
Voltage-sensitive dyes allow neuronal activity to be studied by non-invasive optical techniques. They provide an attractive means of investigating striate cortex, where important response properties
Neural axis representing target range in the auditory cortex of the mustache bat.
In echolocating bats, the primary cue for determining distance to a target is the interval between an emitted orientation sound and its echo, and the frequency-modulated-signal processing area shows odotopic representation.