A different genetic code in human mitochondria

@article{Barrell1979ADG,
  title={A different genetic code in human mitochondria},
  author={Barclay G. Barrell and A. T. Bankier and Jacques Drouin},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1979},
  volume={282},
  pages={189-194}
}
Comparison of the human mitochrondrial DNA sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene and the sequence of the corresponding beef heart protein shows that UGA is used as a tryptophan codon and not as a termination codon and suggests that AU A may be a methionine and not an isoleucine codon. The cytochrome oxidase II gene is contiguous at its 5′ end with a tRNAAsp gene and there are only 25 bases at its 3′ end before a tRNALys gene. These tRNAs are different from all other known tRNA… 
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The complete sequence of the 16,569-base pair human mitochondrial genome is presented and shows extreme economy in that the genes have none or only a few noncoding bases between them, and in many cases the termination codons are not coded in the DNA but are created post-transcriptionally by polyadenylation of the mRNAs.
Yeast mitochondrial tRNATrp can recognize the nonsense codon UGA
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A yeast mitochondrial tRNATrp gene is isolated and a yeast tRNA can recognize and insert tryptophan into a growing polypeptide chain in response to the nonsense codon UGA, suggesting that UGA specifies tryPTophan in the mitochondrial code.
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The bovine mitochondrial gene products ND2 and ND4, components of NADH dehydrogenase, have been purified from a chloroform/methanol extract of mitochondrial membranes, and the human mitochondrial genesND2 and cytochrome b have been obtained by similar procedures and it is demonstrated that AUA also encodes methionine in the elongation step of mitochondrial protein synthesis.
The structure of the gene for subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase in Neurospora crassa mitochondria.
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The C-terminal part of the gene is about 70 basepairs longer than the corresponding parts of the Saccharomyces and mammalian genes, and the homology between the Neurospora coding sequence and those of yeast and mammals is very high.
The putative mRNA for subunit II of human cytochrome c oxidase starts directly at the translation initiator codon
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This work sequenced a 5′-end proximal segment of the putative COII mRNA from HeLa cells of about 30 nucleotides and aligned it with the COII coding sequence in human mtDNA, showing that this RNA starts directly at the AUG initiator codon.
Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA, a novel organization and genetic code
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Evidence is provided for a genetic code in which AGA codes for serine and the quadruplet ATAA is used in initiation of translation of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA.
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