A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe

  title={A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe},
  author={Siiri Rootsi and Lev A. Zhivotovsky and Mari{\'a}n Baldovi{\vc} and Manfred Kayser and Ildus Kutuev and Rita I. Khusainova and Marina A. Bermisheva and Marija Gubina and Sardana A. Fedorova and Anne-Mai Ilum{\"a}e and Elza K. Khusnutdinova and Mikhail Ivanovich Voevoda and L. P. Osipova and Mark Stoneking and Alice A. Lin and Vladim{\'i}r Fer{\'a}k and Jüri Parik and Toomas Kivisild and Peter A. Underhill and Richard Villems},
  journal={European Journal of Human Genetics},
A large part of Y chromosome lineages in East European and East Asian human populations belong to haplogroup (hg) NO, which is composed of two sister clades N-M231 and O-M175. The O-clade is relatively old (around 30 thousand years (ky)) and encompasses the vast majority of east and Southeast Asian male lineages, as well as significant proportion of those in Oceanian males. On the other hand, our detailed analysis of hg N suggests that its high frequency in east Europe is due to its more recent… 

Genetic Evidence of an East Asian Origin and Paleolithic Northward Migration of Y-chromosome Haplogroup N

It is proposed that the early northward dispersal of Hg N started from southern China about 21 thousand years ago (kya), expanding into northern China 12–18 kya, and reaching further north to Siberia about 12–14 kya before a population expansion and westward migration into Central Asia and eastern/northern Europe around 8.0–10.0 kya.

Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe

AbstractIn order to reconstruct the history of Y-chromosome haplogroup (hg) N dispersals in north Eurasia, we have analyzed the diversity of microsatellite (STR) loci within two major hg N clades, N2

Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia

The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal ‘Out-of-Africa’ route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia.

Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup N: A Non-trivial Time-Resolved Phylogeography that Cuts across Language Families.

Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into East Asia via the northern route.

It is proposed that although the Paleolithic migrations via the southern route played a major role in modern human settlement in East Asia, there are ancient contributions, though limited, from THE AUTHORS, which partly explain the genetic divergence between current southern and northern East Asian populations.

Post-last glacial maximum expansion of Y-chromosome haplogroup C2a-L1373 in northern Asia and its implications for the origin of Native Americans.

The results support the argument from ancient DNA analyses that the direct ancestor group of Native Americans is an admixture of "Ancient Northern Siberians and Paleolithic communities from the Amur region, which appeared during the post-LGM era, rather than ancient populations in greater Beringia, or an adjacent region, before the LGM.

Boundaries and clines in the West Eurasian Y-chromosome landscape: insights from the European part of Russia.

Significant but low correlations between haplogroup frequencies and the geographic location of populations are found, suggesting gradual change in the Y chromosome gene pool across western Eurasia.

The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a

The spatial frequency distributions of R1a sub-haplogroups conclusively indicate two major groups, one found primarily in Europe and the other confined to Central and South Asia.

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians

The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward, and their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians.

Phylogeography of the Y‐chromosome haplogroup C in northern Eurasia

To reconstruct the phylogenetic structure of Y‐chromosome haplogroup (hg) C in populations of northern Eurasia, we have analyzed the diversity of microsatellite (STR) loci in a total sample of 413



Y-chromosome evidence of southern origin of the East Asian-specific haplogroup O3-M122.

It is estimated that the early northward migration of the O3-M122 lineages in East Asia occurred approximately 25,000-30,000 years ago, consistent with the fossil records of modern humans in EastAsia.

Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in europe.

Haplogroup I, the only major clade of the Y phylogeny that is widespread over Europe but virtually absent elsewhere, is analyzed, in detail, and it is revealed that it underwent a postglacial expansion and marked the human colonization of Sardinia approximately 9,000 years ago.

Y-Chromosome evidence for a northward migration of modern humans into Eastern Asia during the last Ice Age.

  • B. SuJ. Xiao L. Jin
  • Environmental Science
    American journal of human genetics
  • 1999
This pattern indicates that the first settlement of modern humans in eastern Asia occurred in mainland Southeast Asia during the last Ice Age, coinciding with the absence of human fossils in easternAsia, 50,000-100,000 years ago.

Y-chromosome evidence for differing ancient demographic histories in the Americas.

Age estimates based on Y-chromosome microsatellite diversity place the initial settlement of the American continent at approximately 14,000 years ago, in relative agreement with the age of well-established archaeological evidence.

Admixture, migrations, and dispersals in Central Asia: evidence from maternal DNA lineages

The present results suggest that the mtDNA found out of Africa might be the result of a maturation phase, presumably in the Middle East or eastern Africa, that led to haplogroups M and N, and subsequently expanded into Eurasia, yielding a geographically structured group of external branches of these two haplog groups in western and eastern Eurasia.

Three major lineages of Asian Y chromosomes: implications for the peopling of east and southeast Asia

The distribution patterns of the Y-haplotypes and mutational ages for the key markers suggest that three major groups with different paternal ancestries separately migrated to prehistoric east and southeast Asia.

Natives or immigrants: modern human origin in east asia

Genetic studies using autosomal, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome markers all point to an African ancestor of East Asians, and a survey of more than 1,000 East Asian Y chromosomes shows no local contribution, making the multiregional hypothesis very unlikely.

Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia

This comprehensive characterization of Y-chromosome heritage addresses many multifaceted aspects of Anatolian prehistory, including: the most frequent haplogroup, J, splits into two sub-clades, one of which (J2) shows decreasing variances with increasing latitude, compatible with a northward expansion.

The emerging limbs and twigs of the East Asian mtDNA tree.

The phylogenetic backbone of the East Asian mtDNA tree is determined by using published complete mtDNA sequences and assessing both coding and control region variation in 69 Han individuals from southern China, confirming that the East Asia mtDNA pool is locally region-specific and completely covered by the two superhaplogroups M and N.

Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists.

The reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era--not Indo-European--expansions have shaped the distinctive South Asian Y-chromosome landscape.