A convergent series for the QED effective action.

@article{Cho2001ACS,
  title={A convergent series for the QED effective action.},
  author={Y. M. Cho and Daewoo Pak},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2001},
  volume={86 10},
  pages={1947-50}
}
The one-loop effective action of QED obtained by Heisenberg and Euler and by Schwinger has been expressed by an asymptotic perturbative series which is divergent. In this Letter we present a nonperturbative but convergent series of the effective action. With the convergent series we establish the existence of the manifest electric-magnetic duality in the one-loop effective action of QED. 

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