A context‐specific single contingent‐reinforcing stimulus boosts intermediate‐term memory into long‐term memory

  title={A context‐specific single contingent‐reinforcing stimulus boosts intermediate‐term memory into long‐term memory},
  author={Kashif Parvez and Victor Moisseev and Ken Lukowiak},
  journal={European Journal of Neuroscience},
Following operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea, memory forms. Depending on the training procedure either intermediate memory (ITM, < 3 h) or long‐term memory (LTM, > 6 h) results. ITM is dependent on de novo protein synthesis whilst LTM is dependent on both transcription and de novo protein synthesis. LTM formation requires the soma of RPeD1 (one of the central pattern generator neurons) to be present. Following activation of a memory, it re‐enters a labile state and undergoes… 
A synaptic reinforcement‐based model for transient amnesia following disruptions of memory consolidation and reconsolidation
It is suggested that prolonged consolidation can account for experimental findings of transient amnesia, in a way that explains differences between disruptions of consolidation and reconsolidation without the need to dwell into the discussion between storage‐ and retrieval‐based explanations for memory impairment.
A flavonoid, quercetin, is capable of enhancing long-term memory formation if encountered at different times in the learning, memory formation, and memory recall continuum.
The present study provides the first support for Q-modulated enhancement of cognitive function in an invertebrate model, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, after an operant conditioning procedure.
Protein Synthesis Is Required for Induction of Amnesia Elicited by Disruption of the Reconsolidation of Long-Term Memory
The mechanisms of amnesia induced by the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, by analogy with the mechanisms of other long-term adaptive rearrangements of the brain, depend on translation and can be suppressed by inhibitors of translation.
The Role of Reconsolidation and the Dynamic Process of Long-Term Memory Formation and Storage
  • C. Alberini
  • Biology, Psychology
    Front. Behav. Neurosci.
  • 2011
It is suggested that the main function of reconsolidation is to contribute to the lingering consolidation process and mediate memory strengthening.
The participation of NMDA receptors, PKC, and MAPK in the formation of memory following operant conditioning in Lymnaea
It is found that NMDA receptor activity was necessary in order for both ITM and LTM formation, and the injection of either U0126 or GF109203X, which inhibit MAPK and PKC activity respectively, 1 hour prior to training results in the inhibition of both ITm and L TM formation.
One-trial conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea: good and poor performers in long-term memory acquisition
A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure is used on individuals of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and analyzed their subsequent behavior to help clarify why some individuals are better at learning and forming memory for specific tasks at the neuronal level.


Boosting intermediate-term into long-term memory
Data support the concept that a molecular memory trace is established as a consequence of ITM-training, which serves as a `permissive substrate', when the ITM memory is made active, sufficient to permit the necessary transcription and translation processes that are causal for LTM formation.
Intermediate and long-term memories of associative learning are differentially affected by transcription versus translation blockers inLymnaea
In Lymnaea, following associative learning, both ITM and LTM are dependent on new protein synthesis, whereas ITM appears to be dependent on protein synthesis from preexisting transcription factors, whilst LTM is dependent onprotein synthesis from new transcription messages.
Gone but not forgotten: the lingering effects of intermediate-term memory on the persistence of long-term memory.
It was found that if ITM training preceded LTM training, then LTM would persist for 24 h longer, and if an extinction procedure was given to the snails after the ITMTraining procedure, LTM did not persist longer than 48 h, so at the behavioural level, ITM and LTM are interconnected.
Reminder effects – reconsolidation or retrieval deficit? Pharmacological dissection with protein synthesis inhibitors following reminder for a passive‐avoidance task in young chicks
Though like initial consolidation, memory expression at delayed periods following reminder depends on protein and glycoprotein synthesis, the differences between the temporal and pharmacological dynamics in the two situations point to the distinct character of the molecular processes involved in postreminder effects.
Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval
It is shown that consolidated fear memories, when reactivated during retrieval, return to a labile state in which infusion of anisomycin shortly after memory reactivation produces amnesia on later tests, regardless of whether reactivation was performed 1 or 14 days after conditioning.
The consolidation of new but not reactivated memory requires hippocampal C/EBPβ
It is shown that consolidation but not reconsolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory requires the expression of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in the hippocampus, an evolutionarily conserved genetic marker that has a selective role in the consolidation of new but not reactivated memories inThe hippocampus.
Short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term memories
Dissociable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation
The unique contributions of wake and sleep in the development of different forms of consolidation are described, and it is shown that waking reactivation can turn a previously consolidated memory back into a labile state requiring subsequent reconsolidation.