A component of innate immunity prevents bacterial biofilm development

  title={A component of innate immunity prevents bacterial biofilm development},
  author={Pradeep K. Singh and Matthew R. Parsek and E. Peter Greenberg and Michael J. Welsh},
Antimicrobial factors form one arm of the innate immune system, which protects mucosal surfaces from bacterial infection. These factors can rapidly kill bacteria deposited on mucosal surfaces and prevent acute invasive infections. In many chronic infections, however, bacteria live in biofilms, which are distinct, matrix-encased communities specialized for surface persistence. The transition from a free-living, independent existence to a biofilm lifestyle can be devastating, because biofilms… 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections: From molecular biofilm biology to new treatment possibilities
The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a number of therapeutic strategies for combat of P. aerugInosa biofilm infections are presented.
AMPs as Anti-biofilm Agents for Human Therapy and Prophylaxis.
AMPs are well suited to combat biofilms because of their potent bactericidal activity of broad spectrum and their ability to first penetrate and then to disorganize these structures.
Immune Defense against S. Epidermidis Biofilms: Components of the Extracellular Polymeric Substance Activate Distinct Bactericidal Mechanisms of Phagocytic Cells
In the bacteria-free extracellular substance of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms protein fractions that activated PMN in vitro, opsonization of biofilm with immunoglobulin and complement was not required for PMN activation, suggesting that bio Films contain signaling components forPMN.
Flagellum-Mediated Biofilm Defense Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Host-Derived Lactoferrin
A cytokine cross talk network between mononuclear cells and neutrophils was identified that was essential to the production of lactoferrin and bacterial killing in P. aeruginosa biofilms that lack the flgK gene, extending previous studies of the importance of lact oferrin in the innate immune defense against bacterial biofilm resistance.
Human Host Defense Peptide LL-37 Prevents Bacterial Biofilm Formation
It is demonstrated that LL-37 affected biofilm formation by decreasing the attachment of bacterial cells, stimulating twitching motility, and influencing two major quorum sensing systems (Las and Rhl), leading to the downregulation of genes essential for biofilm development.
Bacterial biofilm eradication and combating strategies
This review paper summarises the current methods employed to inhibit bacterial biofilm and agents that eradicate biofilms and uses biofilm inhibitors to prevent biofilm formation or agents that can disperse preformed biofilm.
Host Defence against Bacterial Biofilms: “Mission Impossible”?
It is concluded that bacterial biofilms are not inherently protected against the attack by neutrophils, but that control of biofilm formation is possible depending on a timely and sufficient host response.
Biofilms and Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Robin Patel
  • Biology, Medicine
    Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • 2005
Techniques that address biofilm susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents may be necessary before antimicrobial regimens for orthopaedic prosthetic device-associated infections can be appropriately defined in research and clinical settings.
Compromised Host Defense on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms: Characterization of Neutrophil and Biofilm Interactions 1
After neutrophils settle on P. aeruginosa biofilms, they become phagocytically engorged, partially degranulated, immobilized, and rounded, and host defense becomes compromised as biofilm bacteria escape while neutrophil remain immobilized with a diminished oxidative potential.
Mucin–Pseudomonas aeruginosa interactions promote biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance
It is suggested that mucin, which may serve as an attachment surface in CF airways, impacts P. aeruginosa biofilm development and function, and a specific adhesin–mucin interaction immobilizes the bacterium on the surface.


Innate antimicrobial peptide protects the skin from invasive bacterial infection
It is shown that cathelicidins are an important native component of innate host defence in mice and provide protection against necrotic skin infection caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS).
The role of extracellular bactericidal factors in pulmonary host defense.
A survey of mechanisms ofextracellular killing shows that granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and T lymphocytes all have the capacity to kill extracellularly in vitro in some circumstances, and it remains to be determined which of these diverse mechanisms operate within the lung and how they function in relationship to other host defenses.
Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections.
Improvements in understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of bacterial community behavior point to therapeutic targets that may provide a means for the control of biofilm infections.
Quorum-sensing signals indicate that cystic fibrosis lungs are infected with bacterial biofilms
The hypothesis that P. aeruginosa might exist as biofilms—structured communities of bacteria encased in a self-produced polymeric matrix—in the cystic fibrosis lung is supported by microscopy of cystic Fibrosis sputum, which shows that the bacterium are in biofilm-like structures.
The effects of lactoferrin on gram-negative bacteria.
  • R. Ellison
  • Biology
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 1994
Work by several groups has shown that the protein synergistically interacts with immunoglobins, complement, and neutrophil cationic proteins against Gram-negative bacteria, suggesting a mechanism for the supplemental effects of lactoferrin.
Flagellar and twitching motility are necessary for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development
The isolation and characterization of mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 defective in the initiation of biofilm formation on an abiotic surface, polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic are reported and evidence that microcolonies form by aggregation of cells present in the monolayer is presented.
Alginate Overproduction Affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Structure and Function
It is reported that the overproduction of alginate affects biofilm development on an abiotic surface and suggests that an important consequence of the conversion to mucoidy is an altered biofilm architecture that shows increasing resistance to antimicrobial treatments.
The zinc-reversible antimicrobial activity of neutrophil lysates and abscess fluid supernatants.
The suppressive effects of either human or mouse neutrophil lysates on Candida albicans growth were found to be completely reversed by micromolar quantities of zinc but not by iron or other trace elements, suggesting that the major mechanism of C. al bicans growth inhibition by abscess fluids is through competition for zinc by a cytoplasmic protein apparently released from dying neutrophils.
Lactoferrin increases the susceptibility of S. epidermidis biofilms to lysozyme and vancomycin.
Lactoferrin displays potential as an adjunctive agent to vancomycin in the treatment of S. epidermidis biofilm infections, such as endophthalmitis, associated with intraocular lenses.
Innate Antimicrobial Activity of Nasal Secretions
Nasal fluid may serve as a useful model for the analysis of lower-airway secretions and their role in host defense against airway colonization and pulmonary infections.