A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even‐toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla)

  title={A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even‐toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla)},
  author={Samantha A Price and Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds and John L. Gittleman},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
Despite the biological and economic importance of the Cetartiodactyla, the phylogeny of this clade remains controversial. Using the supertree approach of matrix representation with parsimony, we present the first phylogeny to include all 290 extant species of the Cetacea (whales and dolphins) and Artiodactyla (even‐toed hoofed mammals). At the family‐level, the supertree is fully resolved. For example, the relationships among the Ruminantia appear as (((Cervidae, Moschidae) Bovidae) (Giraffidae… 
A comprehensive phylogeny of extant horses, rhinos and tapirs (Perissodactyla) through data combination
The first phylogenies to include all extant species of Perissodactyla (oddtoed hoofed mammals) and the recently extinct quagga are presented and the contentious affinity of the Sumatran rhino is resolved in favour of it forming a clade with the two Asian rhinos.
Evolving between land and water: key questions on the emergence and history of the Hippopotamidae (Hippopotamoidea, Cetancodonta, Cetartiodactyla)
The fossil record of the Hippopotamidae can shed light on three major issues in mammalian evolution, namely the sudden appearance of hippopotamines in the late Miocene, the subsequent rampant endemism in African basins, and the Pleistocene expansion of Hippopotamus.
A supermatrix analysis of genomic, morphological, and paleontological data from crown Cetacea
The parsimony analysis of the supermatrix and the analysis of morphology constrained to fit the ML/Bayesian molecular tree yielded broadly congruent phylogenetic hypotheses, implying that many character states shared by river dolphins evolved in their oceanic ancestors, contradicting the hypothesis that these characters are convergent adaptations to fluvial habitats.
Radiation of Extant Cetaceans Driven by Restructuring of the Oceans
It is found that the toothed whales are monophyletic, suggesting that echolocation evolved only once early in that lineage some 36–34 Ma, and support is found for increased diversification rates during periods of pronounced physical restructuring of the oceans.
The Nasal Complex of a Semiaquatic Artiodactyl, the Moose (Alces alces): Is it a Good Evolutionary Model for the Ancestors of Cetaceans?
There is little evidence that the early ancestors of cetaceans engaged in prolonged bouts of diving for aquatic foods but more probably were surface swimmers traveling between terrestrial food sources or fleeing predators.
Fragilicetus velponi: a new mysticete genus and species and its implications for the origin of Balaenopteridae (Mammalia, Cetacea, Mysticeti)
The character combination exhibited by this cetacean provides important information about the assembly of the specialized morphological features responsible for the highly efficient prey capture mechanics of Balaenopteridae.
How to contend with paraphyly in the taxonomy of the delphinine cetaceans
Until molecular and/or morphological analyses adequately sort out relationships in this very recently radiated group, one possible solution indeed would be to merge all the delphinine genera with Delphinus, and implications of such a move and alternatives are discussed.
High-level systematics of placental mammals: Current status of the problem
It is shown that the fossil record is the only reliable method to test the phylogenetic hypotheses based on the material of the molecular and morphological studies of recent taxa.


New Morphological Evidence for the Phylogeny of Artiodactyla, Cetacea, and Mesonychidae
Abstract Parsimony-based analyses of a data set including 68 taxa coded for 186 morphological characters corroborate monophyly of Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates), Suiformes (hippos, pigs,
Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls
Cladistic analysis of the skeletons of two early Eocene pakicetid cetaceans, the fox-sized Ichthyolestes pinfoldi, and the wolf-sized Pakicetus attocki, indicates that cetACEans are more closely related to artiodactyls than to any mesonychian, and supports monophyly of artiodACTyls.
A composite species‐level phylogeny of the ‘Insectivora’ (Mammalia: Order Lipotyphla Haeckel, 1866)
The first MRP (matrix representation with parsimony) supertree phylogeny of the Lipotyphla is presented, covering all the families that were considered to make up the traditional mammalian order Insectivora, with a strong imbalance in phylogenetic understanding across the taxon.
Molecular evidence from retroposons that whales form a clade within even-toed ungulates
An extensive survey of retropositional events that might have occurred during the divergence of whales and even-toed ungulates is made, providing evidence that whales, ruminants and hippopotamuses form a monophyletic group.
Retroposon analysis of major cetacean lineages: The monophyly of toothed whales and the paraphyly of river dolphins
The combination of SINE and flanking sequence analysis suggests a topology and set of divergence times for odontocete relationships, offering alternative explanations for several long-standing problems in cetacean evolution.
The Phylogenetic Position of Cetaceans: Further Combined Data Analyses, Comparisons with the Stratigraphic Record and a Discussion of Character Optimization1
A previous total evidence analysis of the position of cetaceans was updated by adding several hundred new informative molecular characters from the literature, finding that all most parsimonious trees indicate a paraphyletic Artiodactyla with conflict existing over the exact sister taxon of Cetacea.
Phylogeny of all major groups of cetaceans based on DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes.
A molecular phylogeny based on 1,352 base pairs of two mitochondrial ribosomal gene segments and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for all major groups of cetaceans contradicts this long-accepted taxonomic subdivision and suggests a more recent origin of baleen whales than has been previously assumed.
Evidence from the digestive tract on phylogenetic relationships in ungulates and whales
Following consideration of 20 morphological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract of ungulates and Cetacea, phylogenetic trees were constructed for baleen whales, toothed whales and beaked whales, as well as for four taxa of the PSHM group.
Evolution of river dolphins
It is suggested that ancestors of the four extant river dolphin lineages colonized the shallow epicontinental seas that inundated the Amazon, Paraná, Yangtze and Indo–Gangetic river basins, subsequently remaining in these extensive waterways during their transition to freshwater with the Late Neogene trend of sea–level lowering.
Influence of alignment on the mtDNA phylogeny of Cetacea: questionable support for a Mysticeti/Physeteroidea clade.
Cetacea has traditionally been divided into Odontoceti, the toothed whales, and Mysticeti, the baleen whales. These groups have been considered monophy? letic, although their origins and age have