A comparison of the effects of noxious and innocuous counterstimuli on experimentally induced itch and pain

@article{Ward1996ACO,
  title={A comparison of the effects of noxious and innocuous counterstimuli on experimentally induced itch and pain},
  author={Louise Ward and Ellen Wright and Stephen B. McMahon},
  journal={Pain},
  year={1996},
  volume={64},
  pages={129-138}
}

Antipruritic Effect of Cold-induced and Transient Receptor Potential-agonist-induced Counter-irritation on Histaminergic Itch in Humans.

TLDR
Cold-induced counter-irritation had an inhibitory effect on histaminergic itch, suggesting that agonists of cold transduction receptors could be of potential antipruritic value.

Effects of scratching and other counterstimuli on responses of trigeminothalamic tract neurons to itch-inducing stimuli in rats.

TLDR
It is found that scratching had little, if any, effect on baseline firing levels but greatly reduced mean pruriceptive firing following scratching for nearly 1 min, and none of the other noxious or innocuous counterstimuli significantly inhibited prurICEptive responses.

Complex interactions between pain and itch

Comparison of responses of primate spinothalamic tract neurons to pruritic and algogenic stimuli.

TLDR
It is concluded that the STT neurons in the authors' sample are more likely to contribute to pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia than to itch and alloknesis.

A literature review on the pharmacological sensitivity of human evoked hyperalgesia pain models.

TLDR
The present literature review aimed to provide insight into the sensitivity of different hyperalgesia and allodynia models of pharmacological treatment and raised questions about the translatability of these models to the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Effects of Short-term Temperature Change in the Innocuous Range on Histaminergic and Non-histaminergic Acute Itch.

TLDR
Investigation of the effect of alternating short-term temperature changes in the innocuous range on histamine and cowhage-induced acute itch indicates that cooling the skin to the cold threshold causes a temporary increase in the intensity of histamine-induced itch.

Electrically Evoked Itch in Human Subjects

TLDR
The electrical stimulation paradigms which were used to evoke itch in humans in the past are reviewed and recent attempts to explore electrically induced itch in atopic dermatitis patients are evaluated.

Noxious heat and scratching decrease histamine-induced itch and skin blood flow.

TLDR
It is suggested that heat pain and scratching may inhibit itch through a neurogenic mechanism that also affects skin blood flow.

Transcutaneous Slowly Depolarizing Currents Elicit Pruritus in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis.

TLDR
Results indicate a reduced adaptation of peripheral C-fibres conveying itch in patients with AD, and sensitized spinal itch processing may underlie chronic itch in these patients, who might benefit from centrally acting antipruritic therapy.
...

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TLDR
Treatment of pruritic conditions with conditioning stimulation, especially vibration, may be of therapeutic interest, and vibratory as well as electrical stimulation, for all frequencies used, reduced subjective itch intensity.

Psychophysical studies of the itch sensation and itchy skin ("alloknesis") produced by intracutaneous injection of histamine.

TLDR
Psychophysical measurements of itch and itchy skin ("alloknesis"--itch produced by innocuous mechanical stimulation) were obtained in human volunteers following intracutaneous or subcutaneous injections of histamine or papain into the volar forearm and the neural mechanisms underlying the spread of alloknesi were investigated via local anesthesia of the skin.

Nociceptor modulated central sensitization causes mechanical hyperalgesia in acute chemogenic and chronic neuropathic pain.

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The principle finding of these experiments is that the severity of brush-evoked pain correlates with the intensity of background pain in patients suffering from chronic painful neuropathies and in normal subjects with acute experimental chemogenic pain.

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TLDR
The effect of peripheral conditioning stimulation on experimentally induced pruritus was studied in 12 healthy volunteers and the local skin flare response following histamine injections was not altered following conditioning stimulation of any type.

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It was postulated that there exist special chemosensitive primary afferent nerve fibers that are more effective in producing mechanical hyperalgesia than are the known thermo- and mechanosensitive nociceptive nerve fibers.

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TLDR
The results indicate that humans can scale the magnitude of itch produced by histamine in a dose-dependent manner and that the duration of itch and the area of flare produced by Histamine are dose- dependent, confirming results of previous investigators.

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TLDR
It is concluded that, in addition to the axon reflex flare, capsaicin-sensitive peptide-containing primary afferent neurones are also intimately involved in the mediation of the sensation of itching.

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The experimental evidence favours the notion that C polymodal nociceptors can provide a peripheral neuronal basis for determination of heat pain threshold and also an essential peripheral code for suprathreshold magnitude judgments ofHeat pain.

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TLDR
The sensation of itching is closely related to that of pain and noxious stimuli, if their intensity be decreased, can be made to produce itching instead of pain.