Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-C/TC levels are important in determining the risk of coronary heart disease. The serum lipids and lipoprotein levels of regularly training sportspersons and non-sporting controls were determined and compared with each other to investigate the effects of exercise and sex on these factors. HDL-C levels of male and female training groups were higher than those of corresponding non-sporting groups (respectively P < 0.01, P < 0.001). The sportswomen's HDL-C levels were higher (P < 0.05); and TC, TG, and LDL-C levels were lower. (P < 0.001) than those of sportsmen's levels. The non-sporting women's TC and TG levels were lower than those of non-sporting men's levels (P < 0.001). HDL-C/TC ratio of active females was higher than that of control females (P < 0.01). The corresponding difference in males was also significant. We conclude that physical activity and sex have effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.