Identification and validation of a core set of informative genic SSR and SNP markers for assaying functional diversity in barley
Direct estimates of sequence diversity provides an abundant source of DNA polymorphisms based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The frequency and distribution of nucleotide diversity within 23 genes associated with grain germination in barley were determined in a sample of accessions representing European cultivars, landraces, and wild barley accessions from throughout the fertile crescent. The overall nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.0021 to 0.0189 with a single nucleotide change being detected every 78 bp and insertion-deletion events being observed every 680 bp. Within the cultivated (H. vulgare) genepool, a small number of haplotypes were detected, the total number of haplotypes observed in H. spontaneum was almost double that detected in H. vulgare (46 and 26, respectively). Distinct haplotypes were observed in the H. spontaneum and landrace genepools, which are highly divergent from H. vulgare. A comparison of SNP-based haplotype data with EST-derived SSRs and genomic SSRs revealed a similar trend of decreasing variability in the cultivated genepool. However, the number of unique alleles identified in the cultivated sample was much greater with genomic SSRs (18%) compared with only 2.1% for SNPs and 3.8% for EST-derived SSRs. The potential utility of SNPs and EST-derived SSRs for association mapping in barley is discussed.