A comparison of genetic diversity between the Galápagos Penguin and the Magellanic Penguin

  title={A comparison of genetic diversity between the Gal{\'a}pagos Penguin and the Magellanic Penguin},
  author={Elaine P. Akst and P. Dee Boersma and Robert C. Fleischer},
  journal={Conservation Genetics},
The Galápagos Penguin (Spheniscusmendiculus) is a United States federallylisted endangered species with populations onthe Galápagos Islands of Fernandina andIsabela. Although the waters around theislands are normally productive, lowproductivity during El Niño years resultsin high adult penguin mortality and lowrecruitment in following years. We usedmicrosatellite markers developed for Spheniscus penguins to study the long termgenetic effects of serial bottleneck events inthe Galápagos Penguin… 
The Role of Demographic History in Shaping Genetic Diversity in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) and the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus)
Signals of current balancing selection at the MHC suggest that selection can counteract the effects of genetic drift through bottleneck events, maintaining current levels of genetic diversity in the Galápagos penguin.
Low MHC variation in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)
The Galápagos penguin had the lowest MHC diversity (as measured by number of polymorphic sites and average divergence among alleles) of the eight penguin species studied.
Low genetic diversity and lack of population structure in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)
The results indicate a low level of genetic diversity throughout the population and a seemingly high level of gene flow between subpopulations, and it is argued that the Galápagos penguin should be managed as one panmictic population and the risk of disease threats in the archipelago.
Demographic history of the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America
AbstractSpatial subdivision, local extinction and recolonization influence the genetic variation of natural populations. Different levels of population structure can be identified in nature, from
The role of demographic history and selection in shaping genetic diversity of the Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)
Analysis of genetic variation in the Galápagos penguin and the Magellanic penguin revealed signals of balancing selection at the MHC, which suggest that selection can mitigate some of the effects of genetic drift during bottleneck events.
Genetic evidence of hybridization between Magellanic (Sphensicus magellanicus) and Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) penguins in the wild.
Bayesian Structure analysis, including samples from the sympatric region of the species in the southern Pacific Ocean, confirmed the use of nuclear markers for detecting hybridization and genetic admixture of putative hybrids, but revealed relatively low levels of genetic introgression at the population level.
MHC diversity and mate choice in the magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus.
Significant MHC genotype/fitness associations in females suggest, however, that selection for pathogen resistance plays a more important role than mate choice in maintaining diversity at the MHC in the Magellanic penguin.
Population size and trends of the Galápagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus
We applied a capture‐mark‐resight (CMR) method to estimate the population size of the Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus . In 1999, we estimated 1198 individuals, with lower and upper 95%
Low genetic diversity and small population size of Takahe Porphyrio hochstetteri on European arrival in New Zealand
The hypothesis that Takahe were common throughout most coastal and eastern parts of the South Island of New Zealand before being hunted to extinction in these regions by early Maori, and persisted as a relatively small and isolated population in Fiordland where they may never have been very common is provided.
Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc
It is shown that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long‐distance dispersal, and this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry.


Population trends of the Galápagos Penguin : Impacts of el niño and la niña
The Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) population probably has always been small and largely restricted to the islands of Fernandina and Isabela. Counts suggest the current population of
Status and conservation of Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus in Patagonia, Argentina
Summary There are 36 breeding colonies of Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus along the coast of mainland Argentina. During the breeding period we counted the number of active nests and
Population boundaries and genetic diversity in the endangered Mariana crow (Corvus kubaryi)
Three types of molecular markers used to assay genetic variation in the Mariana crow indicated that the two populations are closely related and separated by a shallow genealogical division, and the populations could be designated as evolutionarily significant units.
Microsatellite variation and microevolution in the critically endangered San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi)
The island subspecies population has evolved sufficient genetic independence to justify ongoing conservation efforts to counter demographic collapse and genetic erosion; the course of genetic erosion can now be monitored non–invasively, as demonstrated by this study, based on DNA amplified from feathers.
Sustaining genetic variation in a small population: evidence from the Mauritius kestrel
It is shown how many of the theoretical results describing the effective size of a subdivided population can be captured in terms of three rates which describe the branching pattern of the gene genealogy, and that they are useful in estimating the time to migration‐drift and mutation-drift equilibrium.
The effective population size of Anopheles gambiae in Kenya: implications for population structure.
Large current Ne is consistent with previous studies showing low differentiation across the continent, especially under Wright's isolation-by-distance model, and long-term Ne, probably measured in hundreds of thousands, does not support a recent expansion of this species from a small population.
Founder events and variation at microsatellite loci in an insular passerine bird, the Laysan finch (Telespiza cantans)
It is concluded that the PHR population is not adequate as a secondary genetic reserve for T. cantans, and an alternative refuge needs to be established.
Investigation of habitat at the smallest spatial scale-the nest site-on reproductive success of Magellanic Penguins found the amount of nest cover was positively correlated with fledging success, suggesting cover is likely to influence lifetime reproductive success substantially.
Low levels of genetic variability in north American populations of the Wood Stork (Mycteria americana)
In agreement with previous studies, it is recommended that all colonies of Wood Storks in the southeastern United States be managed on a regional basis as a single interbreeding population.