A comparison of genetic diversity between the Galápagos Penguin and the Magellanic Penguin

@article{Akst2004ACO,
  title={A comparison of genetic diversity between the Gal{\'a}pagos Penguin and the Magellanic Penguin},
  author={Elaine P. Akst and P. Dee Boersma and Robert C. Fleischer},
  journal={Conservation Genetics},
  year={2004},
  volume={3},
  pages={375-383}
}
The Galápagos Penguin (Spheniscusmendiculus) is a United States federallylisted endangered species with populations onthe Galápagos Islands of Fernandina andIsabela. Although the waters around theislands are normally productive, lowproductivity during El Niño years resultsin high adult penguin mortality and lowrecruitment in following years. We usedmicrosatellite markers developed for Spheniscus penguins to study the long termgenetic effects of serial bottleneck events inthe Galápagos Penguin… 
The Role of Demographic History in Shaping Genetic Diversity in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) and the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus)
TLDR
Signals of current balancing selection at the MHC suggest that selection can counteract the effects of genetic drift through bottleneck events, maintaining current levels of genetic diversity in the Galápagos penguin.
Low MHC variation in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)
TLDR
The Galápagos penguin had the lowest MHC diversity (as measured by number of polymorphic sites and average divergence among alleles) of the eight penguin species studied.
Low genetic diversity and lack of population structure in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)
TLDR
The results indicate a low level of genetic diversity throughout the population and a seemingly high level of gene flow between subpopulations, and it is argued that the Galápagos penguin should be managed as one panmictic population and the risk of disease threats in the archipelago.
Demographic history of the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America
AbstractSpatial subdivision, local extinction and recolonization influence the genetic variation of natural populations. Different levels of population structure can be identified in nature, from
The role of demographic history and selection in shaping genetic diversity of the Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)
TLDR
Analysis of genetic variation in the Galápagos penguin and the Magellanic penguin revealed signals of balancing selection at the MHC, which suggest that selection can mitigate some of the effects of genetic drift during bottleneck events.
Genetic evidence of hybridization between Magellanic (Sphensicus magellanicus) and Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) penguins in the wild.
TLDR
Bayesian Structure analysis, including samples from the sympatric region of the species in the southern Pacific Ocean, confirmed the use of nuclear markers for detecting hybridization and genetic admixture of putative hybrids, but revealed relatively low levels of genetic introgression at the population level.
MHC diversity and mate choice in the magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus.
TLDR
Significant MHC genotype/fitness associations in females suggest, however, that selection for pathogen resistance plays a more important role than mate choice in maintaining diversity at the MHC in the Magellanic penguin.
Population size and trends of the Galápagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus
We applied a capture‐mark‐resight (CMR) method to estimate the population size of the Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus . In 1999, we estimated 1198 individuals, with lower and upper 95%
Low genetic diversity and small population size of Takahe Porphyrio hochstetteri on European arrival in New Zealand
TLDR
The hypothesis that Takahe were common throughout most coastal and eastern parts of the South Island of New Zealand before being hunted to extinction in these regions by early Maori, and persisted as a relatively small and isolated population in Fiordland where they may never have been very common is provided.
Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc
TLDR
It is shown that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long‐distance dispersal, and this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry.
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The Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) population probably has always been small and largely restricted to the islands of Fernandina and Isabela. Counts suggest the current population of
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