# A comparison of factor analysis programs in SPSS, BMDP, and SAS

@article{MacCallum1983ACO, title={A comparison of factor analysis programs in SPSS, BMDP, and SAS}, author={Robert C. MacCallum}, journal={Psychometrika}, year={1983}, volume={48}, pages={223-231} }

Factor analysis programs in SAS, BMDP, and SPSS are discussed and compared in terms of documentation, methods and options available, internal logic, computational accuracy, and results provided. Some problems with respect to logic and output are described. Based on these comparisons, recommendations are offered which include a clear overall preference for SAS, and advice against general use of SPSS for factor analysis.

## 49 Citations

Special review: Evaluation of the exploratory factor analysis programs provided in SPSSX and SPSS/PC+

- Psychology
- 1993

Given the frequent use of SPSSX and SPSS/PC+ exploratory factor analysis in analyzing multivariate psychometric data, it is germane to examine the limitations of the Factor program as it currently…

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- Computer ScienceBehavior research methods
- 2006

The program FACTOR is presented, which was designed as a general, user-friendly program for computing EFA, which implements traditional procedures and indices and incorporates the benefits of some more recent developments.

A Guide to the Proper Use of Factor Analysis in the Conduct and Reporting of Research: Pitfalls to Avoid

- Business
- 1997

Suggestions for proper procedures to use and pitfalls to avoid are offered to prospective authors of manuscripts on studies using factor analysis methods.

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- Psychology
- 1986

Subjects in a course in structural equation modeling analyzed problems using three different computer programs using a repeated measures Latin square design, finding differences in how easy the programs were to use.

Software Review : Seven Confirmatory Factor Analysis Programs: EQS, EzPATH, LINCS, LISCOMP, LISREL 7, SI MPLIS, and CALIS

- Business
- 1993

Seven confirmatory factor analysis programs that run on a personal computer—EQs, EzPATH, LINCS, LISCOMP, LISREL 7, SIMPLIS, and CALIS—are reviewed along five dimensions: (1) clarity of documentation,…

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- Psychology
- 1988

This article focuses on differences in factor analytic methods and statistical packages, and the potential impact of these differences on gratification literature. These differences are illustrated…

A Simulation Study of Factor Score Indeterminacy

- Psychology
- 1986

Though factor analysis continues to be one of the most frequently used multivariate techniques, its value has been questioned because of the indeterminacy of factor scores. The authors review the…

Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research.

- Psychology, Business
- 1999

Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major…

The Application of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Agricultural Education Research.

- Psychology
- 1994

Factor analysis is not a new method of data analysis. It has been used extensively as a data analytic technique for the better part of the 20th century (Spearman, 1904). Social scientists have used…

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