A comparison between randomly alternating imaging, normal laparoscopic imaging, and virtual reality training in laparoscopic psychomotor skill acquisition.


OBJECTIVES To evaluate virtual reality as a laparoscopic training device in helping surgeons to automate to the "fulcrum effect" by comparing it to time-matched training programs using randomly alternating images (ie, y-axis inverted and normal laparoscopic) and normal laparoscopic viewing conditions. METHODS Twenty-four participants (16 females and 8… (More)