Irregular Meal Timing Is Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastritis
To evaluate the psycho-social factors of peptic ulcer, we carried out a comparative study. Seventy-six men and 19 women with peptic ulcers diagnosed at seven hospitals in Kyoto, Osaka and Hyogo Prefectures in Japan were surveyed during November 1990 about their daily hassles, depressive state, social support and life style using a self-administered questionnaire. The results were compared to those for two control groups. One control group was diagnosed with normal, atrophic gastritis, or superficial gastritis by the gastro-duodenal endoscopic examinations in the same hospitals. The other control group consisted of participants in a health-screening examination at one of the above hospitals. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in daily hassles, depressive state, and social support. However, being unmarried, smoking and eating irregular meals significantly increased the relative risk of peptic ulcer in men and family history of peptic ulcer significantly increased the risk in women.