The authors present the results of clinical, x-ray, and biochemical studies carried out in 51 patients with uremic osteodystrophy, treated with hemodialysis, before and after parathyroidectomy. The patients were divided into 4 groups with various patterns of x-ray symptoms. Patients with x-ray signs of fibrous osteodystrophy made up group 1, the second group consisted of patients with a combination of fibrous osteodystrophy and osteomalacia with secondary hyperparathyrosis predominance; the third group, like the second one, included patients with the mixed form of uremic osteodystrophy, but with the predominance of the osteomalacic syndrome; Group 4 patients had no x-ray signs of bone changes, and the diagnosis of uremic osteodystrophy was confirmed by clinical laboratory evidence. Analysis of the clinical and x-ray data before and after parathyroidectomy has brought the authors to a conclusion that such an intervention was effective only in cases with manifest clinical and x-ray symptoms of fibrous osteodystrophy. In Group 2 patients with the mixed form of uremic osteodystrophy and less manifest osteomalacia as against fibrous osteodystrophy, subtotal or partial parathyroidectomy is advisable only in cases when conservative therapy is of no avail and fibrous dystrophy is progressing. Surgical treatment is contraindicated to patients in whom x-ray signs of osteomalacia predominate over fibrous osteodystrophy in the total picture of uremic osteodystrophy; it may result in a rapid progress of osteomalacia.