A common origin for cosmic explosions inferred from calorimetry of GRB030329

@article{Berger2003ACO,
  title={A common origin for cosmic explosions inferred from calorimetry of GRB030329},
  author={Edo Berger and Shrinivas R. Kulkarni and Guy G. Pooley and Dale A. Frail and V. J. Mcintyre and Robin M. Wark and R. Sari and Alicia Margarita Soderberg and Derek W. Fox and Scott A. Yost and Paul A. Price},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2003},
  volume={426},
  pages={154-157}
}
Past studies have suggested that long-duration γ-ray bursts have a ‘standard’ energy of Eγ ≈ 1051 erg in the ultra-relativistic ejecta, after correcting for asymmetries in the explosion (‘jets’). But a group of sub-energetic bursts, including the peculiar GRB980425 associated with the supernova SN1998bw (Eγ ≈ 1048 erg), has recently been identified. Here we report radio observations of GRB030329 that allow us to undertake calorimetry of the explosion. Our data require a two-component explosion… 
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