The antibody atliximab attenuates collagen-induced arthritis by neutralizing AIMP1, an inflammatory cytokine that enhances osteoclastogenesis.
An auxiliary factor of mammalian multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, p43, is thought to be a precursor of endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) that triggers proinflammation in leukocytes and macrophages. In the present work, however, we have shown that p43 itself is specifically secreted from intact mammalian cells, while EMAP II is released only when the cells are disrupted. Secretion of p43 was also observed when its expression was increased. These results suggest that p43 itself should be a real cytokine secreted by an active mechanism. To determine the cytokine activity and active domain of p43, we investigated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production from human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with various p43 deletion mutants. The full length of p43 showed higher cytokine activity than EMAP II, further supporting p43 as the active cytokine. p43 was also shown to activate MAPKs and NFkappaB, and to induce cytokines and chemokines such as TNF, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MIP-2alpha, IL-1beta, and RANTES. Interestingly, the high level of p43 was observed in the foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, p43 could be a novel mediator of atherosclerosis development as well as other inflammation-related diseases.