A chemical toolkit for proteins — an expanded genetic code

@article{Xie2006ACT,
  title={A chemical toolkit for proteins — an expanded genetic code},
  author={Jianming Xie and Peter G. Schultz},
  journal={Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology},
  year={2006},
  volume={7},
  pages={775-782}
}
  • J. XieP. Schultz
  • Published 23 August 2006
  • Biology, Chemistry
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
Recently, a method to encode unnatural amino acids with diverse physicochemical and biological properties genetically in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells was developed. Over 30 unnatural amino acids have been co-translationally incorporated into proteins with high fidelity and efficiency using a unique codon and corresponding transfer-RNA:aminoacyl–tRNA-synthetase pair. This provides a powerful tool for exploring protein structure and function in vitro and in vivo, and for generating… 

A facile system for encoding unnatural amino acids in mammalian cells.

A shuttle system has been developed to genetically encode unnatural amino acids in mammalian cells using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) evolved in E. coli, making possible the selective incorporation of this unnatural amino acid into proteins.

Designer proteins: applications of genetic code expansion in cell biology

Designer amino acids, beyond the canonical 20 that are normally used by cells, can now be site-specifically encoded into proteins in cells and organisms. This is achieved using 'orthogonal'

Genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in mammalian cells

A general approach that allows unnatural amino acids with diverse physicochemical and biological properties to be genetically encoded in mammalian cells to facilitate the introduction of biological probes into proteins for cellular studies and may ultimately facilitate the synthesis of therapeutic proteins containing unnatural amino acid in mammaliancells.

Ribosome evolution for two artificial amino acids in E. coli.

Evolution of amber suppressor tRNAs for efficient bacterial production of proteins containing nonnatural amino acids.

Open in a separate window Regions of the M. jannaschii tyrosyl tRNACUA thought to interact with elongation factor Tu were randomized, and the resulting tRNA libraries were subjected to in

Reprogramming the Genetic Code

These routes to unnatural polymer synthesis and evolution are already facilitating the study of cellular processes including protein interactions, protein conformational changes, posttranslational modification biology, and the kinetics of protein transport and cell signaling with a new level of molecular precision.

Enhancing Protein Stability with Genetically Encoded Noncanonical Amino Acids.

It is shown that substitution of Phe 21 with ( p-benzoylphenyl)alanine (pBzF), increases the melting temperature of E. coli metA by 21 °C, and shows that an expanded genetic code can provide unique solutions to the evolution of proteins with enhanced properties.

Site-Specific Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids into Escherichia coli Recombinant Protein: Methodology Development and Recent Achievement

The latest progress made to enhance nonsense suppression in E. coli is described with the emphasis on the improved expression vectors encoding for an orthogonal aa-RA/tRNA pair, enhancement of a a-RS and suppressor tRNA efficiency, the evolution of Orthogonal EF-Tu and attempts to reduce the effect of RF1.

Incorporation of unnatural amino acids for synthetic biology.

The emerging strategies for incorporating UAAs into proteins with the endgame of engineering artificial cells and organisms are reviewed.

Expanding the Genetic Code of an Animal

The genetic code of a multicellular animal, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, is expanded to allow for the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins.
...

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