Hepatitis B virus associated focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis: report of two cases and review of literature
A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of nephrotic syndrome. He had been monitored at our outpatient clinic for chronic hepatitis B, and had experienced histologically proven minimal change nephrotic syndrome at the ages of 40 and 51 years. Because of HBsAg positivity in his serum, steroid therapy was withheld in his earlier episodes and he recovered from nephrotic syndrome spontaneously. However, in the most recent episode the nephrotic syndrome was found difficult to control and the findings of renal biopsy showed FSGS, which is not expected in HBV-associated nephropathy. Finally, prednisolone was administered at the dose of 40 mg/day for four weeks, after which the dose was tapered. LDL apheresis was also administered three times because of the patient's incomplete response to prednisolone. His proteinuria was reduced from > 10 g/day to < 1 g/day, but the ALT levels and HBsAg titer increased. With stronger neominophagen C induction and very careful tapering of glucocorticoid, ALT levels and the HBsAg titer decreased. During the two-year period since the induction of glucocorticoid therapy, urinary protein excretion has been maintained at less than 1 g/gcr, and ALT levels and HBsAg titer have not increased. We conclude that attention must be paid to dose modification of steroid therapy and strategies without immunosuppressive agents such as LDL apheresis should be considered in the case of treatment of nephrotic syndrome with HB virus.