A combined aortectomy was performed on a patient with recurrence of sigmoid colon cancer in the paraaortic lymph nodes. The 48-year-old woman was found to have tumor recurrence in the lymph nodes in the area between the aortic bifurcation and the paraaortic area, accompanied by left hydronephrosis, four years after surgery for sigmoid colon cancer (H0, P0, ss, n3, stage IIIb). No metastasis to distant areas was detected at that time. The woman thus underwent a reoperation. Intraoperatively, the aortic bifurcation and the lymph nodes were seen as a mass. The mass involved the left common iliac vein and the left ureter, as well. Therefore, we resected the area from the aortic bifurcation to the bilateral common iliac arteries, the left common iliac vein, the left ureter and the left kidney en bloc, and replaced them with a Y-shaped graft. One year after the reoperation, a tumor metastasis to the liver was detected, and a partial hepatectomy was performed. At present, the patient is being managed at our outpatient clinic. The results suggest that extended resection, involving the aorta as well, is sometimes useful when dealing with tumor recurrence in the paraaortic lymph nodes, unaccompanied by blood-borne metastasis.