Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis
INTRODUCTION To screen the risk factors associated with breast cancer among Chinese women in order to evaluate the individual risk of developing breast cancer among women in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A case-control study on 416 breast cancer patients and 1156 matched controls was conducted in 14 hospitals in 8 provinces of China in 2008. Controls were age- and region-matched to the cases. Clinicians conducted in-person interviews with the subjects to collect information on demographics and suspected risk factors for breast cancer that are known worldwide. Conditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between risk factors and breast cancer. RESULTS Compared with matched controls, women with breast cancer were significantly more likely to have higher body mass index (BMI, OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.98-5.55), history of benign breast disease (BBD) biopsy (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.19-2.38), older age of menarche (AOM) (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07-1.87), stress anticipation (SA), for grade 1-4, OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.26-3.66; for grade 5-9, OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.03-5.95) and menopause (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.50-3.282) at the level of p < 0.05. Family history of breast cancer (FHBC) in first-degree relatives (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 0.77-3.59) and use of oral contraceptives (OC) (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.83-3.05) were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer at the level of p < 0.20. CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that BMI, history of BBD biopsy, older AOM, SA and menopause were associated with increased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. The findings derived from the study provided some suggestions for population-based prevention and control of breast cancer in China.