A physical map of the mouse genome is an essential tool for both positional cloning and genomic sequencing in this key model system for biomedical research. Indeed, the construction of a mouse physical map with markers spaced at an average interval of 300 kb is one of the stated goals of the Human Genome Project. Here we report the results of a project at the Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research to construct such a physical map of the mouse. We built the map by screening sequenced-tagged sites (STSs) against a large-insert yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library and then integrating the STS-content information with a dense genetic map. The integrated map shows the location of 9,787 loci, providing landmarks with an average spacing of approximately 300 kb and affording YAC coverage of approximately 92% of the mouse genome. We also report the results of a project at the MRC UK Mouse Genome Centre targeted at chromosome X. The project produced a YAC-based map containing 619 loci (with 121 loci in common with the Whitehead map and 498 additional loci), providing especially dense coverage of this sex chromosome. The YAC-based physical map directly facilitates positional cloning of mouse mutations by providing ready access to most of the genome. More generally, use of this map in addition to a newly constructed radiation hybrid (RH) map provides a comprehensive framework for mouse genomic studies.