A Vicious Cycle

@article{Okonofua2016AVC,
  title={A Vicious Cycle},
  author={Jason A. Okonofua and Gregory M. Walton and Jennifer L. Eberhardt},
  journal={Perspectives on Psychological Science},
  year={2016},
  volume={11},
  pages={381 - 398}
}
Can social–psychological theory provide insight into the extreme racial disparities in school disciplinary action in the United States? Disciplinary problems carry enormous consequences for the quality of students’ experience in school, opportunities to learn, and ultimate life outcomes. This burden falls disproportionately on students of color. Integrating research on stereotyping and on stigma, we theorized that bias and apprehension about bias can build on one another in school settings in a… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

When policy and psychology meet: Mitigating the consequences of bias in schools

Results indicate that the integrated interventions can curb teachers’ troublemaker labeling and pattern prediction toward Black students who misbehave in a hypothetical paradigm, and this research informs scientific theory, public policy, and interventions.

Rac(e)ing to punishment? Applying theory to racial disparities in disciplinary outcomes

ABSTRACT In recent decades, racial disparities in K-12 disciplinary outcomes in the United States have garnered considerable attention. Empirical studies have established that schools’ discipline

Suspended Attitudes: Exclusion and Emotional Disengagement from School

We know far less about the unintended social-psychological consequences of out-of-school suspensions on students than we do of the academic, behavioral, and civic consequences. Drawing on theories of

Reducing Suspension and Increasing Equity Through Supportive and Engaging Schools

Implicit Bias in the Era of Social Desirability: Understanding Antiblackness in Rehabilitative and Punitive School Discipline

Recent research provides evidence that teachers’ implicit bias may impact school discipline but has poorly defined discipline. This research examines if implicit bias impacts 7 discrete types of

The Law and Social Psychology of Racial Disparities in School Discipline

  • E. Girvan
  • Law
    Advances in Psychology and Law
  • 2019
In the 1980s and 1990s, policy-makers who were concerned about gang activity and “super predator” youth adopted zero-tolerance policies and practices for students in the U.S. The resulting

The School Discipline Dilemma: A Comprehensive Review of Disparities and Alternative Approaches

In recent decades, K–12 school discipline policies and practices have garnered increasing attention among researchers, policymakers, and educators. Disproportionalities in school discipline raise

Promising pathways from school restorative practices to educational equity

ABSTRACT Research in school discipline suggests that punitive and exclusionary sanctions have adverse effects on students and are disproportionately administered to students of color and low-income

Children’s Perspectives on Fairness and Inclusivity in the Classroom

Abstract School represents an important context for children’s social, moral, and identity development. Research indicates that supportive teacher-student relationships are significantly related to
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 155 REFERENCES

Two Strikes

It is argued that race not only can influence how perceivers interpret a specific behavior, but also can enhance perceivers’ detection of behavioral patterns across time.

The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment

The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school

A question of belonging: race, social fit, and achievement.

Two experiments tested how belonging uncertainty undermines the motivation and achievement of people whose group is negatively characterized in academic settings, and an intervention that mitigated doubts about social belonging in college raised the academic achievement of Black students but not of White students.

Deflecting the trajectory and changing the narrative: how self-affirmation affects academic performance and motivation under identity threat.

To the extent that stereotype and identity threat undermine academic performance, social psychological interventions that lessen threat could buffer threatened students and improve performance, two studies examined whether a values affirmation writing exercise could attenuate the achievement gap between Latino American and European American students.

Racism and Health I

A large and growing body of evidence indicates that experiences of racial discrimination are an important type of psychosocial stressor that can lead to adverse changes in health status and altered behavioral patterns that increase health risks.

A Brief Social-Belonging Intervention Improves Academic and Health Outcomes of Minority Students

The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.

Recursive Processes in Self-Affirmation: Intervening to Close the Minority Achievement Gap

An intervention, a series of brief but structured writing assignments focusing students on a self-affirming value, reduced the racial achievement gap and treated students' self-perceptions showed long-term benefits.

Chronic threat and contingent belonging: protective benefits of values affirmation on identity development.

Together these studies suggest that values affirmations insulate individuals' sense of belonging from environmental threat during a key developmental transition, and show that the affirmation intervention was more effective if delivered before any drop in performance and subsequent psychological toll could unfold.

Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents

A brief intervention aimed at encouraging an empathic mindset about discipline halved student suspension rates over an academic year and bolstered respect the most at-risk students, previously suspended students, perceived from teachers.

Understanding the Antecedents of the "School-to-Jail" Link: The Relationship Between Race and School Discipline

the relationship between a lack of school success, school disengagement, and involvement in the criminal justice system. This link has been deemed the "school-to-jail pipeline." To date, research has
...