A Unified, Merger-driven Model of the Origin of Starbursts, Quasars, the Cosmic X-Ray Background, Supermassive Black Holes, and Galaxy Spheroids

@article{Hopkins2006AUM,
  title={A Unified, Merger-driven Model of the Origin of Starbursts, Quasars, the Cosmic X-Ray Background, Supermassive Black Holes, and Galaxy Spheroids},
  author={Philip F. Hopkins and Lars Hernquist and Thomas J. Cox and Tiziana di Matteo and Brant E. Robertson and Volker Springel Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Carnegie-Mellon and Mpa Garching},
  journal={Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series},
  year={2006},
  volume={163},
  pages={1-49}
}
We present an evolutionary model for starbursts, quasars, and spheroidal galaxies in which mergers between gas-rich galaxies drive nuclear inflows of gas, producing starbursts and feeding the buried growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) until feedback expels gas and renders a briefly visible optical quasar. The quasar lifetime and obscuring column density depend on both the instantaneous and peak quasar luminosity, and we determine this dependence using a large set of galaxy merger… 
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