A Two-Variable Fragment of English

  title={A Two-Variable Fragment of English},
  author={I. Pratt-Hartmann},
  journal={Journal of Logic, Language and Information},
  • I. Pratt-Hartmann
  • Published 2003
  • Computer Science
  • Journal of Logic, Language and Information
Controlled languages are regimented fragments of natural languagedesigned to make the processing of natural language more efficient andreliable. This paper defines a controlled language, E2V, whose principalgrammatical resources include determiners, relative clauses, reflexivesand pronouns. We provide a formal syntax and semantics for E2V, in whichanaphoric ambiguities are resolved in a linguistically natural way. Weshow that the expressive power of E2V is equal to that of thetwo-variable… Expand
Fragments of Language
This paper represents a casestudy in how to approach the problem of determining the logicalcomplexity of various natural language constructions, and draws some general conclusions about the relationship between naturallanguage and formal logic. Expand
The Semantic Complexity of some Fragments of English
By a fragment of a natural language we mean a subset of that la nguage equipped with a semantics which translates its sentences into some fo r al system such as first-order logic. The familiarExpand
Rhetorical Compositions for Controlled Natural Languages
This paper defines a model for representing compositional structures found in natural language, such as Antithesis, Concession, and Unless in a way that is both rhetorically expressive and logically reducible and describes a set of intercompositional rules of inference that can be used to reason about the interrelationships. Expand
More Fragments of Language
The present paper considers various fragments of English involving ditransitive verbs and determines their semantic complexity. Expand
Logics for Two Fragments beyond the Syllogistic Boundary
  • L. Moss
  • Mathematics, Computer Science
  • Fields of Logic and Computation
  • 2010
A system with the following properties is constructed: its syntax is closer to that of a natural language than is first-order logic; it can faithfully represent simple sentences with standard quantifiers, subject relative clauses, and negation on nouns and verbs. Expand
Controlled English for DL-Lite
As it is well-known, querying and managing structured data in natural language is a challenging task due to its ambiguity (syntactic and semantic) and its expressiveness. On the other hand, querying,Expand
Natural Logic for Natural Language
  • J. Eijck
  • Mathematics, Computer Science
  • TbiLLC
  • 2005
This work introduces the semantic and the syntactic sides of monotonicity reasoning or `natural logic', and proposes an improvement to the Syntactic monotonic calculus, in the form of an improved algorithm for monotonicism marking. Expand
Attempto Controlled English for Knowledge Representation
Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language, i.e. a precisely defined subset of English that can automatically and unambiguously be translated into first-order logic. ACE mayExpand
Controlled Natural Languages for Knowledge Representation
The most mature of these novel languages are presented, show how they can balance the disadvantages of natural languages and formal languages for knowledge representation, and discuss how domain specialists can be supported writing specifications in controlled natural language. Expand
Natural Logic and Semantics
  • L. Moss
  • Mathematics, Computer Science
  • Amsterdam Colloquium on Logic, Language and Meaning
  • 2009
This paper returns to the topic of language and logic, presenting to semanticists natural logic, the study of logics for reasoning with sentences close to their surface form, and presents a fairly new result based on the transitivity of comparative adjective phrases that suggests that in addition to 'meaning postulates' in semantics, the authors will also need to posit 'proof principles'. Expand


Logical inference in English: A preliminary analysis
The perfect fit of syntactic derivability and logical consequence in first-order logic is one of the most celebrated facts of modern logic. In the present flurry of attention given to the semanticsExpand
A Logic for Natural Language
  • W. C. Purdy
  • Computer Science, Mathematics
  • Notre Dame J. Formal Log.
  • 1991
A language called LN whose structure mirrors tilat of natural language, characterized by absence of variables and individual constants, is described, and each step of a proof in [,N has a direct counterpart in the surface language. Expand
Attempto Controlled English - Not Just Another Logic Specification Language
The specification language Attempto Controlled English is a controlled natural language, i.e. a subset of standard English with a domain-specific vocabulary and a restricted grammar that allows domain specialists to express specifications in familiar natural language and combine this with the rigour of formal specification languages. Expand
A Method for Controlling the Production of Specifications in Natural Language
The interface is designed to reduce the degree of imprecision and ambiguity in the natural-language statements, as well as contributing to the writing of shorter statements, with clear structure and punctuation. Expand
Controlled natural language can replace first-order logic
This work describes how Attempto Controlled English (ACE), a subset of English that can be unambiguously translated into first-order logic and thus can conveniently replace first- order logic as a formal notation, has been used as a front-end to EP Tableaux. Expand
Natural Language Syntax and First-Order Inference
This paper shows how a fragment of English syntax under Montague semantics provides the foundation of a new inference procedure that seems more effective than corresponding procedures based on either classical syntax or the previously proposed taxonomic syntax. Expand
Quantifiers vs. Quantification Theory
Quantifiers have entered the Methodenstreit of contemporary linguistics in another major way, too, the idea that the structures studied in the so-called quantification theory of symbolic logic-otherwise know as first-order logic, (lower) predicate calculus, or elementary logic-can serve and suffice as semantical representations of English sentences. Expand
On Logics with Two Variables
Abstract This paper is a survey and systematic presentation of decidability and complexity issues for modal and non-modal two-variable logics. A classical result due to Mortimer says that theExpand
On The Restraining Power of Guards
  • E. Grädel
  • Mathematics, Computer Science
  • J. Symb. Log.
  • 1999
It is proved that the satisfiability problems for the guarded fragment and the loosely guarded fragment of first-order logic are complete for deterministic double exponential time, and a tree model property is established for both the guarded fragments and the closely guarded fragment. Expand
Natural deduction rules for English
A system of natural deduction rules is proposed for an idealized form of English. The rules presuppose a sharp distinction between proper names and such expressions as ‘the c’, ‘a (an) c’, ‘some c’,Expand