A Tropical Rainforest in Colorado 1.4 Million Years After the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary

  title={A Tropical Rainforest in Colorado 1.4 Million Years After the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary},
  author={Kirk R. Johnson and Bethany Ellis},
  pages={2379 - 2383}
An extremely diverse lower Paleocene (64.1 million years ago) fossil leaf site from Castle Rock, Colorado, contains fossil litter that is similar to the litter of extant equatorial rainforests. The presence of a high-diversity tropical rainforest is unexpected, because other Paleocene floras are species-poor, a feature generally attributed to the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction. The site occurs on the margin of the Denver Basin in synorogenic sedimentary rocks associated with the rise of… 

Evidence for an in situ early Paleocene rainforest from Castle Rock, Colorado

A very diverse, early Paleocene (63.8 ± 0.3 Ma) fossil leaf site located in Castle Rock, Colorado represents nearly autochthonous burial of a rainforest floor. This is an unusual fossil flora

The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary event in New Zealand: Profiling mass extinction

  • C. Hollis
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2003
Abstract Of over 20 known Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary sections in the New Zealand region, 6 in the northern South Island were selected for detailed biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental

Floral and environmental gradients on a late Cretaceous landscape

We describe an in situ fossil flora of Late Cretaceous age (∼73 Ma [mega-annum or million years]) from Big Cedar Ridge in central Wyoming, USA, which we sampled using a modified line-intercept method

Early Paleocene tropical forest from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, San Juan Basin, New Mexico, USA

Abstract. Earliest Paleocene megafloras from North America are hypothesized to be low diversity and dominated by long-lived cosmopolitan species following the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) mass

Icacinaceae in the Early Middle Paleocene Raton Formation, Colorado

  • K. Berry
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2018
Abstract Icacinicaryites corruga is reported from the upper coal zone of the Raton Formation in south-central Colorado. Prior to this report, this endocarp imprint was known from only a single

Mid Paleocene fossil floras and climate from western Scotland

Fossil plants of Paleocene age (62 to 59.7 Ma) are preserved within lava sequences in the Hebrides and Northern Ireland. These lavas, collectively referred to as the British Tertiary Volcanic Group

The impactful origin of neotropical rainforests

Analysis of fossil pollen and leaf data across the K/Pg boundary is reported, to assess plant diversity and structure in the lowland tropics before and after the catastrophe, and answer one of the biggest questions in paleobotany: When and how did the diverse, angiosperm-dominated, stratified tropical forests of South America emerge.

The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum: Plants as Paleothermometers, Rain Gauges, and Monitors

We travel back in time through this chapter and take a field trip to western North America during the Paleocene– Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), some 56 million years ago. Here, plant-and-animal

Land plant extinction at the end of the Cretaceous: a quantitative analysis of the North Dakota megafloral record

Abstract We present a quantitative analysis of megafloral turnover across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary (K/T) based on the most complete record, which comes from the Williston Basin in



Leaf assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin, New Mexico and Colorado.

  • J. A. WolfeG. Upchurch
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1987
No difference can be detected between latest Cretaceous and early Paleocene temperatures, but precipitation markedly increased at the boundary, and higher survival rate of deciduous versus evergreen taxa supports occurrence of a brief cold interval, as predicted in models of an "impact winter".

Late Paleocene–early Eocene climate changes in southwestern Wyoming: Paleobotanical analysis

  • P. Wilf
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2000
The warmest global temperatures of the Cenozoic Era occurred in early Eocene time, following a warming trend that started in late Paleocene time. The greater Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming

Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic history of deciduousness and the terminal Cretaceous event

  • J. A. Wolfe
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1987
Deciduousness in mesic, broad-leaved plants occurred in disturbed, middle-latitude environments during the Late Cretaceous. Only in polar environments in the Late Cretaceous was the deciduous element

Late Paleocene-early Eocene climatic and biotic events in the marine and terrestrial records

The transition from the Paleocene to the Eocene Epoch-approximately 55 million years ago-represents a critical moment in the earth's history, when the warmest climatic episode of the Cenozoic era

Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of Laramide sedimentary basins in the central Rocky Mountain region

In the Rocky Mountain region between central Montana and central New Mexico, sedimentologically isolated nonmarine basins were produced by basement deformation during the Laramide orogeny within the

Impact of the terminal Cretaceous event on plant–insect associations

Evidence for a major extinction of insect herbivores is provided by presence–absence data for 51 plant–insect associations on 13,441 fossil plant specimens, spanning the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary


Estimates of past precipitation are of broad interest for many areas of inquiry, including reconstructions of past environments and topography, climate modeling, and ocean circulation studies. The

Fossils and fossil climate: the case for equable continental interiors in the Eocene

There are many methods for inferring terrestrial palaeoclimates from palaeontological data, including the size and species diversity of ectothermic vertebrates, the locomotor and dental adaptations