A new method is proposed to derive the size of the interspecies uncertainty factor (UF) that is toxicologically and statistically based. The method involves quantifying interspecies variation in susceptibility to numerous toxic substances via the use of binary interspecies comparisons that are converted to a 95% UF. This interspecies UF represents an estimate of the upper 95% of the population of 95% prediction intervals (PI) for binary interspecies comparisons within four categories of phylogenetic relatedness (species within genus, genera within family, families within order, orders within class). The 95% interspecies UFs range from a low of 10 for species within genus up to 65 for orders within class. Most mammalian toxicology studies involving mice, rats, cats, dogs, gerbils, and rabbits are orders-within-class categories for human risk assessment and would be provided a 65-fold UF. Larger or smaller interspecies UF values could be selected on the level of protection desired.