A Three-Dimensional Statistical Analysis for CBF Activation Studies in Human Brain

  title={A Three-Dimensional Statistical Analysis for CBF Activation Studies in Human Brain},
  author={Keith J. Worsley and Alan C. Evans and Sean Marrett and Peter Neelin},
  journal={Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow \& Metabolism},
  pages={900 - 918}
Many studies of brain function with positron emission tomography (PET) involve the interpretation of a subtracted PET image, usually the difference between two images under baseline and stimulation conditions. The purpose of these studies is to see which areas of the brain are activated by the stimulation condition. In many cognitive studies, the activation is so slight that the experiment must be repeated on several subjects and the subtracted images are averaged to improve the signal-to-noise… 
Detecting and estimating the regions of activation in CBF activation studies in human brain
Many studies of brain function with positron emission tomography (PET) involve the interpretation of a subtracted PET image, usually the difference between two images of cerebral blood flow (CBF)
Searching scale space for activation in PET images
This paper provides a unified P value for the 4‐D local maxima that is accurate for searches over regions of any shape or size and applies equally well to any Gaussian statistical field, such as those resulting from fMRI.
Clustered pixels analysis for functional MRI activation studies of the human brain
This work presents a new cluster analysis model applicable to data with little or even no covariance between adjacent pixels, and is substantially more sensitive than both the conventional intensity‐only thresholding (IOT) method and the previous cluster method for signal change less than 6%, with maximum significant enhancement in sensitivity.
A computationally efficient segmentation method based on the utilization of contextual information from the 3-D neighborhood of each voxel by using a Markov random field model is developed, which does not require assumptions about the intensity distribution of the activated voxels.
On two methods of statistical image analysis
The similarity of the results yielded by similar methods of analysis for the human studies and the simulated activations substantiates the robustness of the methods for selecting functional regions and demonstrated that quantitative evaluation of significance of a functional region encounters important obstacles at every stage of the analysis.
Principle and Recent Advances of Neuroactivation Study
The noise free scanner environment PET, along with discrete acquisition of data for each task condition, are important advantages of PET over other functional imaging methods regarding studying state-dependent changes in brain activity.
Estimation of the Probabilities of 3D Clusters in Functional Brain Images
A modification of the cluster analysis proposed by Roland et al. is presented, showing the method used to be specific and sensitive and is further compared with SPM96 and the nonparametric method of Holmes etAl.
Normalizing Counts and Cerebral Blood Flow Intensity in Functional Imaging Studies of the Human Brain
Three normalization procedures were evaluated on their ability to remove extraneous error variation, induce homogeneity of intersubject variation, and remove unwanted dependencies, and all worked well at removing the dependency of rCBF on gCBF in count and flow images.
An evaluation of methods for detecting brain activations from functional neuroimages


Anatomical-Functional Correlative Analysis Of The Human Brain Using Three Dimensional Imaging Systems
Methods for the three-dimensional integration and simultaneous display of image volumes from MRI and PET and a general algorithm for finding the optimal transformation between two ensembles of equivalent points were implemented and investigated through simulation studies.
Comparing Functional (PET) Images: The Assessment of Significant Change
This report describes an approach that may partially resolve the uncertainty in assessing the significance of statistical parametric maps and models the SPM as a stationary stochastic process.
Enhanced Detection of Focal Brain Responses Using Intersubject Averaging and Change-Distribution Analysis of Subtracted PET Images
Sensitivity in detecting the somatosensory response rose steadily with averaging, increasing from 50% in individual images to 100% when three or more images were averaged, and Specificity was 100% at all averaging levels.
Stimulus rate dependence of regional cerebral blood flow in human striate cortex, demonstrated by positron emission tomography.
Investigation of the relationship between the repetition rate of a simple sensory stimulus and regional cerebral blood flow in the human brain concluded that stimulus rate is a significant determinant of rCBF response in the visual cortex.
MRI-PET Correlation in Three Dimensions Using a Volume-of-Interest (VOI) Atlas
A general algorithm for defining the affine transformation between two equivalent point ensembles has been adapted for the purpose of registering MRI and PET image volumes by means of a simple fiducial arrangement and previous MRI-based computerized atlas methodology to three dimensions is extended.
Noninvasive functional brain mapping by change-distribution analysis of averaged PET images of H215O tissue activity.
  • P. Fox, M. Mintun
  • Medicine
    Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • 1989
Most research and clinical applications of functional brain mapping can employ images of H215O tissue activity (intravenous bolus, 40-sec nondynamic scan) without conversion to units of blood flow, thereby simplifying and minimizing the invasivity of the PET procedure.
Brain blood flow measured with intravenous H2(15)O. I. Theory and error analysis.
Simulation showed that the tissue autoradiographic method for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in animals was adapted for use with positron emission tomography and was accurate in the presence of ischemia or hyperemia of the gray matter.
A Stereotactic Method of Anatomical Localization for Positron Emission Tomography
A high degree of accuracy and reproducibility was demonstrated when this technique was applied to groups of normal subjects by determining the anatomical location of two physiologically defined PET areas: the cavernous sinus and visually responsive cortex.
Brain blood flow measured with intravenous H2(15)O. II. Implementation and validation.
The well-known tissue autoradiographic technique for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) is adapted using positron emission tomography (PET) and intravenously administered oxygen-15-labeled water and the correlation between CBF measured with PET and the true CBF for the same cerebral hemisphere was excellent.