A Third Individuation: Immigration, Identity, and the Psychoanalytic Process

  title={A Third Individuation: Immigration, Identity, and the Psychoanalytic Process},
  author={Salman July Akhtar},
  journal={Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association},
  pages={1051 - 1084}
  • S. Akhtar
  • Published 1 August 1995
  • Sociology, Medicine
  • Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Immigration from one country to another is a complex psychosocial process with lasting effects on an individual's identity. The dynamic shifts, resulting from an admixture of "culture shock" and mourning over the losses inherent in migration, gradually give way to psychostructural change and the emergence of a hybrid identity. This paper delineates the factors affecting the psychological outcome of immigration and describes four interlinked strands in the fabric of identity change in immigrants… 
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